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Chemical analysis of ingredients for Exp. 21,2

 
Item, % Corn Soybean meal Dried whey
DM 88.81 89.09 90.04
CP 9.01 47.00 11.84
Total AA
    Lys 0.29 2.88 0.79
    Ile 0.31 2.09 0.65
    Leu 1.10 3.51 1.07
    Met 0.18 0.66 0.16
    Thr 0.30 1.80 0.68
    Trp 0.07 0.65 0.22
    Val 0.40 2.12 0.59
    His 0.24 1.17 0.18
    Phe 0.43 2.35 0.37
Standardized ileal digestible AA, % (Calculated)
    Lys 0.21 2.56 0.77
    Ile 0.25 1.86 0.62
    Leu 0.95 3.09 1.05
    Met 0.15 0.59 0.16
    Thr 0.23 1.53 0.61
    Trp 0.06 0.59 0.21
    Val 0.32 1.84 0.56
    His 0.20 1.05 0.17
    Phe 0.36 2.07 0.34
1Analyzed for AA content at Ajinomoto Heartland, Inc. (Chicago, IL).
2Standardized ileal digestible (SID) concentration calculated using SID coefficients from the NRC (NRC, 2012).



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Diet composition (as-fed basis), Exp. 11

 
Formulated SID2 Lys, %
Item 1.10 1.60 Common phase
Ingredient, %
    Corn 59.06 48.15 63.77
    Soybean meal, 48% CP 26.89 27.05 32.86
    Dried whey 10.00 10.00
    Limestone 1.00 1.00 0.98
    Monocalcium phosphate, 22% P 1.60 1.50 1.10
    Salt 0.30 0.30 0.35
    L-Lys-HCl 0.25 0.55 0.3
    DL-Met 0.13 0.33 0.12
    L-Thr 0.10 0.26 0.12
    L-Trp 0.02 0.06
    L-Val 0.01 0.15
    Trace mineral premix3 0.15 0.15 0.15
    Vitamin premix4 0.25 0.25 0.25
    Zinc oxide 0.25 0.25
    HP 3005 10.00
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00
Calculated analysis6
SID AA, %
    Lys 1.10 1.60 1.22
    Ile:Lys 64 57 63
    Leu:Lys 133 109 129
    Met:Lys 35 40 33
    Met & Cys:Lys 60 59 57
    Thr:Lys 65 65 63
    Trp:lys 20.4 20.3 18.7
    Val:Lys 70 70 69
Total Lys, % 1.23 1.77 1.37
ME, kcal/kg 3,256 3,302 3,272
NE, kcal/kg 2,427 2,407 2,407
SID Lys:ME, g/Mcal 3.38 4.84 3.73
SID Lys:NE, g/Mcal 4.57 7.44 5.16
CP, % 19.3 24.7 21.4
Ca, % 0.82 0.83 0.70
P, % 0.76 0.79 0.64
Available P, % 0.48 0.48 0.41
1Dietary treatments 1.10 and 1.60% SID Lys were manufactured and blended at the feed mill to create the intermediate levels of 1.20, 1.30, 1.40, and 1.50% SID Lys.
2SID = Standardized ileal digestible.
3Provided per kilogram of premix: 22 g Mn from manganese oxide; 73 g Fe from iron sulfate; 73 g Zn from zinc sulphate; 11 g Cu from copper sulfate; 198 mg I from calcium iodate; and 198 mg Se from sodium selenite.
4Provided per kilogram of premix: 3,527,360 IU vitamin A; 881,840 IU vitamin D3; 17,637 IU vitamin E; 3,307 mg riboflavin; 1,764 mg menadione; 11,023 mg pantothenic acid; 33,069 mg niacin; and 15.4 mg vitamin B12.
5Hamlet Protein, Findley, OH.
6 NRC (2012).



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Diet composition (as-fed basis), Exp. 21

 
Formulated SID2 Val:Lys ratio, %
Item 50 85 Common phase
Ingredient, %
    Corn 62.97 62.50 63.77
    Soybean meal, 48% CP 22.07 22.11 32.86
    Dried whey 10.00 10.00
    Limestone 1.00 1.00 0.98
    Monocalcium phosphate, 22% P 1.65 1.65 1.10
    Salt 0.30 0.30 0.35
    L-Lys-HCl 0.63 0.63 0.3
    DL-Met 0.27 0.27 0.12
    L-Thr 0.29 0.29 0.12
    L-Trp 0.08 0.08
    L-Val 0.00 0.44
    L-Ile 0.10 0.10
    Trace mineral premix3 0.15 0.15 0.15
    Vitamin premix4 0.25 0.25 0.25
    Zinc oxide 0.25 0.25
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00
Calculated analysis
SID AA, %
    Lys 1.24 1.24 1.22
    Ile:Lys 57 57 63
    Leu:Lys 110 110 129
    Met:Lys 40 40 33
    Met & Cys:Lys 60 60 57
    Thr:Lys 66 66 63
    Trp:Lys 20.1 20.1 18.7
    Val:Lys 50 85 69
Total Lys, % 1.36 1.36 1.37
ME, kcal/kg 3,289 3,298 3,272
NE, kcal/kg 2,427 2,407 2,407
SID Lys:ME, g/Mcal 3.75 3.74 3.73
SID Lys:NE, g/Mcal 5.09 5.08 5.16
CP, % 17.6 17.9 21.4
Ca, % 0.82 0.82 0.70
P, % 0.73 0.73 0.64
Available P, % 0.49 0.49 0.41
1The 50 and 85% SID Val:Lys diets were manufactured and blended at the feed mill to create the intermediate Val Concentrations at 57, 63, 68, 73, and 78% of Lys.
2SID = Standardized ileal digestible.
3Provided per kilogram of premix: 22 g Mn from manganese oxide; 73 g Fe from iron sulfate; 73 g Zn from zinc sulphate; 11 g Cu from copper sulfate; 198 mg I from calcium iodate; and 198 mg Se from sodium selenite.
4Provided per kilogram of premix: 3,527,360 IU vitamin A; 881,840 IU vitamin D3; 17,637 IU vitamin E; 3,307 mg riboflavin; 1,764 mg menadione; 11,023 mg pantothenic acid; 33,069 mg niacin; and 15.4 mg vitamin B12.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Chemical analysis of diets (as-fed basis), Exp. 11

 
Formulated standardized ileal digestible Lys, %2
Item 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60
Item, %3
    DM 88.77 88.24 88.81 87.35 89.18 89.22
    CP 20.6 20.9 21.6 23.0 23.4 24.4
    Crude fiber 1.8 1.7 2.1 1.9 1.9 2.2
    Ether extract 2.5 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.4
    Ash 5.05 5.58 5.31 5.60 5.81 5.52
AA analysis, %4
    Lys 1.26 1.38 1.42 1.52 1.60 1.75
    Ile 0.83 0.86 0.91 0.94 0.96 1.02
    Leu 1.76 1.76 1.83 1.88 1.93 1.98
    Met 0.40 0.47 0.48 0.51 0.54 0.65
    Met + Cys 0.75 0.81 0.84 0.88 0.92 1.04
    Thr 0.80 0.85 0.92 1.00 1.02 1.12
    Trp 0.25 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.32 0.35
    Val 0.91 0.95 1.03 1.08 1.12 1.22
    His 0.49 0.52 0.52 0.56 0.58 0.60
    Phe 0.95 0.98 1.03 1.06 1.11 1.15
1Diet samples were collected at the feed mill after manufacturing.
2 SID = Standardized ileal digestible; Low (1.10% SID Lys) and high (1.60% SID Lys) diets were blended at the feed mill to create the intermediate treatments.
3Composite samples were submitted to Ward Laboratories (Kearney, NE) for analysis.
4Composite samples were submitted to Ajinomoto Heartland Inc. (Chicago, IL) for AA analysis.



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Chemical analysis of diets (as-fed basis), Exp. 21

 
Formulated standardized ileal digestible Val:Lys ratio, %2
Item 50 57 63 68 73 78 85
Item, %3
    DM 89.84 90.16 90.37 90.24 90.35 90.06 90.24
    CP 17.0 18.7 17.6 18.0 18.0 19.3 17.6
    Crude fiber 2.0 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.2 2.0 1.8
    Ether extract 2.6 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.2
    Ash 5.25 5.58 5.26 5.08 5.17 5.14 5.14
AA analysis, %4
    Lys 1.32 1.33 1.37 1.35 1.35 1.33 1.34
    Ile 0.76 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.78 0.87 0.80
    Leu 1.56 1.54 1.54 1.51 1.55 1.61 1.59
    Met 0.46 0.50 0.50 0.48 0.49 0.46 0.48
    Met + Cys 0.73 0.77 0.77 0.74 0.78 0.75 0.77
    Thr 0.92 0.89 0.92 0.89 0.90 0.94 0.96
    Trp 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
    Val 0.78 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.99 1.04 1.10
    His 0.43 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.42 0.44 0.43
    Phe 0.83 0.92 0.82 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.84
1Treatment diet samples were collected at the feed mill after manufacturing.
2SID = Standardized ileal digestible; Low (50% SID Val:Lys) and high (85% SID Val:Lys) diets were blended at the feed mill to create the intermediate treatments.
3Composite samples were submitted to Ward Laboratories (Kearney, NE) for analysis.
4Composite samples were submitted to Ajinomoto Heartland Inc. (Chicago, IL) for AA analysis.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Least square means and SEM of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys on nursery pig growth performance1,2

 
Formulated SID Lys, %
Probability, P <
Item 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 Linear Quadratic
Treatment period (d 0 to 14)
    ADG, g 265 263 298 313 319 320 0.001 0.278
        SEM 9.6 9.6 10.1 10.1 9.6 9.6
    ADFI, g 432 417 446 438 441 442 0.336 0.835
        SEM 13.9 13.9 14.6 14.6 13.9 13.9
    G:F 0.616 0.631 0.670 0.714 0.725 0.729 0.001 0.249
        SEM 0.0188 0.0188 0.0096 0.0096 0.0188 0.0188
Post-treatment period (d 14 to 28)
    ADG, g 565 568 580 554 578 582 0.391 0.653
        SEM 12.6 12.6 13.3 13.3 12.6 12.6
    ADFI, g 886 890 916 875 909 925 0.154 0.558
        SEM 17.2 17.2 18.1 18.1 17.2 17.2
    G:F 0.637 0.639 0.633 0.634 0.636 0.630 0.578 0.954
        SEM 0.0068 0.0068 0.0091 0.0091 0.0086 0.0086
Overall (d 0 to 28)
    ADG, g 415 416 439 433 448 451 0.001 0.797
        SEM 9.3 9.3 9.8 9.8 9.3 9.3
    ADFI, g 659 653 681 657 675 683 0.180 0.799
        SEM 14.1 14.1 14.9 14.9 14.1 14.1
    G:F 0.630 0.636 0.645 0.661 0.665 0.661 0.001 0.401
        SEM 0.0086 0.0086 0.0091 0.0091 0.0086 0.0086
BW, kg
    d 0 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.7 0.952 0.721
        SEM 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06
    d 14 10.4 10.4 10.9 11.1 11.2 11.2 0.001 0.263
        SEM 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
    d 28 18.3 18.3 19.0 18.9 19.3 19.3 0.001 0.758
        SEM 0.27 0.27 0.29 0.29 0.27 0.27
1A total of 300 nursery pigs (PIC 327 × 1,050, initially 6.7 kg BW) were used. Each mean with the SEM listed below is from 9 pens for 1.30 and 1.40 SID Lys treatments and 10 pens for the remaining treatments. All pens had 5 pigs per pen. Pigs were weaned at approximately 21 d, fed a common starter diet for 6 d post-weaning, then fed experimental diets.
2Experimental diets were fed from d 0 to 14 and a common diet was fed from d 14 to 28.



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Effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val:Lys ratio on nursery pig growth performance1,2

 
Formulated SID Val:Lys, %3
Probability, P <
Item 50 57 63 68 73 78 85 Linear Quadratic
Treatment period (d 0 to 14)
    ADG, g 190 221 249 249 248 251 238 0.001 0.001
    SEM 5.9 11.8 11.8 11.9 11.8 11.8 11.8
    ADFI, g 331 363 394 388 403 390 386 0.012 0.030
    SEM 17.1 17.1 17.1 17.2 17.1 17.1 17.1
    G:F 0.579 0.612 0.635 0.646 0.614 0.645 0.617 0.101 0.039
    SEM 0.0188 0.0188 0.0188 0.0189 0.0188 0.0188 0.0188
Post-treatment period (d 14 to 28)
    ADG, g 541 531 515 575 522 530 539 0.992 0.945
    SEM 15.4 15.5 15.4 15.5 15.4 15.4 15.4
    ADFI, g 826 817 825 878 847 866 876 0.028 0.965
    SEM 22.9 22.9 22.9 23.0 22.9 22.9 22.9
    G:F 0.654 0.651 0.624 0.655 0.616 0.612 0.616 0.001 0.923
    SEM 0.0099 0.0099 0.0099 0.0100 0.0099 0.0099 0.0099
Overall (d 0 to 28)
    ADG, g 366 376 382 412 385 391 389 0.067 0.089
    SEM 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0
    ADFI, g 579 590 609 633 625 628 631 0.006 0.266
    SEM 17.1 17.1 17.1 17.2 17.1 17.1 17.1
    G:F 0.632 0.639 0.628 0.652 0.616 0.622 0.616 0.104 0.303
    SEM 0.0105 0.0105 0.0105 0.0105 0.0105 0.0105 0.0105
BW, kg
    d 14 9.2 9.6 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 9.9 0.001 0.001
    SEM 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16
    d 28 16.8 17.1 17.1 18.1 17.3 17.5 17.5 0.057 0.146
    SEM 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32
1A total of 280 nursery pigs (PIC 327 × 1,050, initially 6.5 kg BW) were used in a 28-d growth trial with 5 pigs per pen and 8 pens per treatment. Pigs were weaned at approximately 21 d, fed a common starter diet for 5 d post-weaning, then fed experimental diets. Initial (d 0) BW was used as a covariate.
2Experimental diets were fed from d 0 to 14 and a common diet was fed from d 14 to 28.
3Low (50% SID Val:Lys ratio) and high (85% SID Val:Lys ratio) diets were blended upon manufacturing at the feed mill to create the 57, 63, 68, 73, and 78% SID Val:Lys ratio dietary treatments.