Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Mode of action of Ractopamine in swine (Adapted from Moody et al., 2000). 1 Protein kinase A stimulates lipolysis by activating hormone sensitive lipase and reduces lipogenesis by inactivating acetyl CoA carboxylase (Moody et al., 2000; Mills, 2002). 2β-agonists increase carcass muscling through muscle fiber hypertrophy (Moody et al., 2000; Mills, 2002). Muscle hypertrophy can be accomplished by increasing the rate of protein synthesis and/or by decreasing the rate of protein degradation (Moody et al., 2000; Mills, 2002).

 


Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Timeline depicting the chain of events after the approval and launch of Paylean.

 


Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Percentage of dead pigs at USDA inspected plants by calendar year from 1991 to 2015 (FSIS, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016).