View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Summary of published data in peer reviewed journals comparing feeds from GM plants of the first generation (with input traits) with their isogenic counterparts in food-producing animals (for details see Flachowsky 2013).

Animals (Species/categories) Number of experiments Nutritional and safety assessment
 Dairy cows 23 No unintended effects in composition of GM crops compared to conventional counterparts (except lower mycotoxin concentrations in GM crops expressing Bt-toxins)
No biologically relevant effects on feed intake, digestibility or animal health, and no unintended effects on the performance and fertility of animals or on the composition and quality of food of animal origin.
Recombinant DNA and newly expressed proteins in GM crops show the same chemical/physical properties as native substances
 Beef cattle 14
 Others 10
Pigs 21
 Laying hens 11
 Broilers 32
 Others 2
Other animal species (Fish, rabbits etc.) 9

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Assessment of present modifications of plants from the view of food safety, food security and sustainability of food production.

Objectives of plant breeding Present significance by plant breeders Contributions to
Food safety Global food security Sustainability of food production
More tolerance against herbicides 0
More resistance against insects etc.
More valuable ingredients 0
Less undesirable ingredients 0
More efficient use of non-renewable resources (water, fuel, nutrients, area etc.) 0
extremely; very; high; ∼ not important.

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Potentials to produce phytogenic biomass and their availability per inhabitant under consideration of population growth.

Plant nutrients in the atmosphere (N2, CO2) ↑↔
Solar energy
Agricultural area
Fossil energy
Mineral plant nutrients
Variation of genetic pool
(↑Increase or unlimited, ↓ Decrease or limited, ↔ no important change)

View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Objectives of inputs and outputs of future plant breeding (NASEM 2016).

Plants with input traits Plants with output traits
Biotic stress tolerance Higher nutrient content
Microbiological resistance, resistance against insects Amino acids, trace elements, vitamins, fatty acids, non-essential ingredients etc.
Abiotic stress tolerance Higher food and feed safety
Drought resistance, increased water utilization efficiency, cold, heat and salt tolerance Lower content in mycotoxins and further undesirable ingredients
Nutrient intake and utilization Higher nutritive value
N, P, CO2, trace nutrients High feed intake and high digestibility
Post-harvest behavior Biofuel and industrial crude products
Microbiological resistance, improved storage properties, increased silage quality High yield, improved properties of bio-fuel, use of by-products as valuable feeds