Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Two major pathways of genome editing. Double-stranded break (DSB) is induced at a targeted sequence by introducing site-directed nuclease. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a DSB repair pathway that ligates or joins two broken ends together, resulting in the introduction of small insertions or deletions (indels) at the site of the DSB (gene disruption). Homology-directed repair (HDR) is a DNA template-dependent pathway for DSB repair, using a homology-containing donor template along with a site-specific nuclease, enabling the insertion of single or multiple transgenes (gene insertion) in addition to some nucleotide changes in which amino acid substitutions of a protein occur (copy of a variant), or a mutation is completely repaired in the resultant organism genome (mutation repair).

 


Figure 2a.
Figure 2a.

An analysis of the public opinions regarding livestock bred by somatic cloning and their products. The public opinions were accepted from 12 Mar. to 10 Apr. 2009. Fifty-four people submitted 99 opinions to the Food Safety Commission via the internet, fax, and postal mail. Further details: http://www.fsc.go.jp/iken-bosyu/pc1_shinkaihatu_clone_210312.html (in Japanese).

 


Figure 2b.
Figure 2b.

The major agricultural purposes for the use of genome editing in livestock breeding. Recent reports on genome editing in livestock were selected from Table 1 and were categorized into four purposes.

 



Source: © adobestock.com

 


Figure 3.
Figure 3.

A schematic diagram of the interactions among farm animals, researchers, regulators and the public. Researchers and regulators primarily consider the feasibility of animal genome editing and the food safety of the animal products, respectively. In turn, the public view genome editing and the modified animals based on their sense of ethics. Then, people assess the researchers’ and regulators’ attitudes through their ethical lens. It is important that animal welfare is a priority matter to discuss genome editing in farm animals in society.