Supplementation of Apple Pomace with Nonprotein Nitrogen for Gestating Beef Cows. I. Feed Intake and Performance
- J. P. Fontenot1,
- K. P. Bovard1,
- R. R. Oltjen2,
- T. S. Rumsey2 and
- B. M. Priode3
A series of four trials were conducted with 142 cows to study the feasibility of supplementing apple pomace with nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) for winter feeding pregnant beef cows from approximately 12 weeks pre-partum until 12 weeks postpartum. No signs of toxicosis were observed in the cows. Feeding a combination of apple pomace with urea, biuret or a combination of these lowered feed consumption and increased body weight losses in the cows, compared to supplementing corn silage with NPN or supplementing apple pomace with protein supplement.
Feeding pomace and NPN in combination to beef cows resulted in birth of small, deformed, dead or weak calves. Results were inconclusive when apple pomace was supplemented with a combination of urea and cottonseed meal. Increasing the level of dietary energy did not prevent the harmful effects, but feeding a small amount of coarse hay appeared to mitigate the effects.
Feeding diets of corn silage and corn cobs with urea, corn oil and a combination of pesticides similar to those present in apple pomace, in an effort to simulate an apple pomace-urea diet, did not produce abnormal calves. Apple pomace should not be supplemented with NPN for gestating ruminants until the cause of the disturbance is uncovered.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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