Effect of dietary copper source (cupric citrate and cupric sulfate) and concentration on growth performance and fecal copper excretion in weanling pigs12
- T. A. Armstrong*3,
- D. R. Cook†,
- M. M. Ward†,
- C. M. Williams†‡ and
- J. W. Spears*4
In each of two experiments, 924 pigs (4.99 kg BW; 16 to 18 d of age) were assigned to 1 of 42 pens based on BW and gender. Pens were allotted randomly to dietary copper (Cu) treatments that consisted of control (10 ppm Cu as cupric sulfate, CuSO4•5H2O) and supplemental dietary Cu concentrations of 15, 31, 62, or 125 ppm as cupric citrate (CuCit), or 62 (Exp. 2 only), 125 (Exp. 1 only), or 250 ppm as CuSO4. Live animal performance was determined at the end of the 45-d nursery phase in each experiment. On d 40 of Exp. 2, blood and fecal samples were collected from two randomly selected pigs per pen for evaluation of plasma and fecal Cu concentrations and fecal odor characteristics. In Exp. 1, ADG, ADFI, and G:F were increased (P < 0.05), relative to controls, when pigs were fed diets containing 250 ppm Cu as CuSO4. Pigs fed diets containing 125 ppm Cu as CuCit had increased (P < 0.05) ADG compared with pigs fed diets supplemented with 15 or 62 ppm Cu as CuCit. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F did not differ among pigs fed diets containing 125 and 250 ppm Cu as CuSO4 or 125 ppm Cu as CuCit. In Exp. 2, pigs fed diets containing 250 ppm Cu as CuSO4 had improved (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and G:F compared with controls. In addition, ADG, ADFI, and G:F were similar when pigs were fed diets containing either 250 ppm Cu as CuSO4 or 125 ppm Cu as CuCit. Pigs fed diets containing 62 ppm Cu as CuSO4 or CuCit had similar ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Plasma Cu concentrations were not affected by dietary Cu source or concentration, but fecal Cu concentrations were increased (P < 0.05) as the dietary concentration of Cu increased. Pigs consuming diets supplemented with 125 ppm Cu as CuCit had fecal Cu concentrations that were lower (P < 0.05) than pigs consuming diets supplemented with 250 ppm Cu as CuSO4. Fecal Cu did not differ in pigs receiving diets supplemented with 62 ppm Cu as CuSO4 or CuCit. Odor characteristics of feces were not affected by Cu supplementation or source. These data indicate that 125 and 250 ppm Cu gave similar responses in growth, and that CuCit and CuSO4 were equally effective at stimulating growth and improving G:F in weanling pigs. Fecal Cu excretion was decreased when 125 ppm Cu as CuCit was fed compared with 250 ppm Cu as CuSO4. Therefore, 125 ppm of dietary Cu, regardless of source, may provide an effective environmental alternative to 250 ppm Cu as CuSO4 in weanling pigs.
Copyright © 2004. . Copyright 2004 Journal of Animal Science