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Journal of Animal Science Abstract - Meat Science and Muscle Biology

National Beef Quality Audit–2005: Survey of targeted cattle and carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, and value of fed steers and heifers1

 

This article in

  1. Vol. 86 No. 12, p. 3533-3543
    unlockOPEN ACCESS
     
    Received: Dec 07, 2007
    Accepted: July 21, 2008
    Published: December 5, 2014


    2 Corresponding author(s): j-savell@tamu.edu
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doi:10.2527/jas.2007-0782
  1. L. G. Garcia*,
  2. K. L. Nicholson*,
  3. T. W. Hoffman,
  4. T. E. Lawrence,
  5. D. S. Hale*,
  6. D. B. Griffin*,
  7. J. W. Savell*2,
  8. D. L. VanOverbeke§,
  9. J. B. Morgan§,
  10. K. E. Belk,
  11. T. G. Field,
  12. J. A. Scanga,
  13. J. D. Tatum and
  14. G. C. Smith
  1. Department of Animal Science, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas AgriLife Research, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843-2471;
    Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523-1171;
    Department of Agricultural Sciences, West Texas A&M University, Canyon 79016; and
    Department of Animal Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater 74078

Abstract

The National Beef Quality Audit–2005 assessed the current status of quality and consistency of US fed steers and heifers. Hide colors or breed type were black (56.3%), red (18.6%), Holstein (7.9%), gray (6.0%), yellow (4.9%), brown (3.0%), white (2.3%), and brindle (1.0%). Identification method and frequency were lot visual tags (63.2%), individual visual tags (38.7%), metal-clip tags (11.8%), electronic tags (3.5%), bar-coded tags (0.3%), by other means (2.5%), and without identification (9.7%). Brand frequencies were no (61.3%), 1 (35.1%), and 2 or more (3.6%), and brands were located on the butt (26.5%), side (7.4%), and shoulder (1.2%). There were 22.3% of cattle without horns, and the majority of those with horns (52.2%) were between 2.54 and 12.7 cm in length. Percentages of animals with mud or manure on specific body locations were none (25.8%), legs (61.4%), belly (55.9%), side (22.6%), and top-line (10.0%). Permanent incisor number and occurrence were zero (82.2%), 1 (5.2%), 2 (9.9%), 3 (0.4%), 4 (1.2%), 5 (0.1%), 6 (0.3%), 7 (0.0%), and 8 (0.7%). Most carcasses (64.8%) were not bruised, 25.8% had one bruise, and 9.4% had multiple bruises. Bruise location and incidence were round (10.6%), loin (32.6%), rib (19.5%), chuck (27.0%), and brisket, flank, and plate (10.3%). Condemnation item and incidence were liver (24.7%), lungs (11.5%), tripe (11.6%), heads (6.0%), tongues (9.7%), and carcasses (0.0%). Carcass evaluation revealed these traits and frequencies: steer (63.7%), heifer (36.2%), bullock (0.05%), and cow (0.04%) sex classes; dark-cutters (1.9%); A (97.1%), B (1.7%), and C or older (1.2%) overall maturities; and native (90.9%), dairy-type (8.3%), and Bos indicus (0.8%) estimated breed types. Mean USDA yield grade (YG) traits were USDA YG (2.9), HCW (359.9 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.3 cm), LM area (86.4 cm2), and KPH (2.3%). The USDA YG were YG 1 (16.5%), YG 2 (36.3%), YG 3 (33.1%), YG 4 (11.8%), and YG 5 (2.3%). Mean USDA quality grade traits were USDA quality grade (Select90), marbling score (Small32), overall maturity (A64), lean maturity (A57), and skeletal maturity (A68). Marbling score distribution was Slightly Abundant or greater (2.7%), Moderate (4.3%), Modest (14.4%), Small (34.5%), Slight (41.2%), and Traces or less (2.9%). This information helps the beef industry measure progress and provides a benchmark for future educational and research activities.

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