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Journal of Animal Science Abstract - Animal Production

Kinetics and disposition of orally dosed sodium chlorate in sheep12

 

This article in JAS

  1. Vol. 90 No. 6, p. 2026-2034
     
    Received: Sept 22, 2011
    Accepted: Dec 17, 2011
    Published: January 20, 2015


    3 Corresponding author(s): david.j.smith@ars.usda.gov
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doi:10.2527/jas.2011-4741
  1. D. J. Smith 3 and
  2. J. B. Taylor
  1. *USDA-ARS, Biosciences Research Laboratory, 1605 Albrecht Blvd., Fargo, ND, 58102-2765; and
    †USDA-ARS, U.S. Sheep Experiment Station, Dubois, ID 83423-5032

Abstract

Experiments were conducted in sheep to determine excretory characteristics of sodium chlorate after a single oral dose. In Exp. 1, lambs (n = 16; age = 8.1 ± 1.7 d; BW = 8.2 ± 1.1 kg; mean ± SD) were dosed orally with 0, 30, 60, or 90 mg/kg BW of sodium chlorate. Twenty-four hours after exposure chlorate residues were dose dependent (P < 0.05) in small intestinal contents, serum, and urine, but chlorate residues were not consistently detected in cecal or colonic contents. In Exp. 2, non-pregnant yearling ewes (BW = 74.8 ± 5.6 kg; mean ± SD) were orally dosed with 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/kg BW of sodium chlorate. Across dose, chlorate residues averaged from 47 to 114, 0.6 to 4.5, and were not detectable to 0.2 μg/mL at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively, in serum of treated animals; in feces, residues averaged 29 to 82, 0.8 to 14, and were not detectable to 1.2 μg/mL at the same respective time periods. In Exp. 3, six lactating ewes (BW = 76.3 ± 8.0 kg) were dosed orally with 450 mg/kg BW of sodium chlorate; residues were measured in serum, milk, urine and feces in periods encompassing 0 to 8, 8 to 16, 16 to 24, 24 to 32, 32 to 40, and 40 to 48 h. Chlorate residues in milk were detectable at all time periods with concentrations averaging from 287 ± 67 to 26 ± 13 μg/mL during the first and last collection periods, respectively. Urine contained the greatest concentration of chlorate at each time point and averaged 480 ± 268 μg/mL at 40 to 48 h. Depletion half-lives in serum, milk, urine, and feces were estimated to be 6.2, 27, 19, and 10 h, respectively; milk, urinary and fecal half-lives are likely overestimated due to the fact that 8-h sample pools were used in half-life estimations. In Exp. 4, three wethers (BW = 87.1 ± 5.3 kg) each were orally dosed with 14 or 42 mg/kg BW of sodium chlorate; blood samples were serially collected for 48 h, and urine samples were collected at 0 to 8, 8 to 16, 16 to 24, 24 to 36, and 36 to 48 h. Estimates of absorption and elimination half-lives based on serum chlorate concentrations were about 0.4 and 2.5 h, respectively. Urine collected during the 6 h immediately following dosing contained the greatest concentrations of chlorate residues relative to subsequent collection periods. Rapid removal of chlorate from the gastrointestinal lumen suggests that effects of chlorate on colonic and fecal gastrointestinal bacteria may occur through mechanisms other than direct luminal contact between microbe and chlorate salts.

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