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This article in JAS

  1. Vol. 90 No. 7, p. 2394-2401
     
    Received: Aug 5, 2011
    Accepted: Dec 30, 2011
    Published: January 20, 2015


    2 Corresponding author(s): Kevin.Welch@ars.usda.gov
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doi:10.2527/jas.2011-4560

The effect of 7, 8-methylenedioxylycoctonine-type diterpenoid alkaloids on the toxicity of tall larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in cattle1

  1. K. D. Welch 2,
  2. B. T. Green,
  3. D. R. Gardner,
  4. D. Cook,
  5. J. A. Pfister and
  6. K. E. Panter
  1. USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, Logan, UT 84341

Abstract

Delphinium spp. contain numerous norditerpenoid alkaloids which are structurally delineated as 7, 8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL) and N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL)-type alkaloids. The toxicity of many tall larkspur species has been primarily attributed to their increased concentration of MSAL-type alkaloids, such as methyllycaconitine (MLA), which are typically 20 times more toxic than MDL-type alkaloids. However, the less toxic MDL-type alkaloids are often more abundant than MSAL-type alkaloids in most Delphinium barbeyi and Delphinium occidentale populations. Previous research demonstrated that MDL-type alkaloids increase the acute toxicity of MSAL-type alkaloids. In this study, we examined the role of MDL-type alkaloids on the overall toxicity of tall larkspur plants to cattle while controlling for the exact dose of MSAL-type alkaloids. Cattle were dosed with plant material from 2 different populations of tall larkspur containing either almost exclusively MDL- or MSAL-type alkaloids. These 2 plant populations were combined to create mixtures with ratios of 0.3:1, 1:1, 5:1, and 10:1 MDL- to MSAL-type alkaloids. The dose that elicited similar clinical signs of poisoning in mice and cattle was determined for each mixture on the basis of the MSAL-type alkaloid content. As the ratio of MDL- to MSAL-type alkaloids increased, the amount of MSAL-type alkaloids required to elicit clinical signs decreased. These results indicate that the less toxic MDL-type alkaloids in tall larkspur exacerbate the toxicity of the MSAL-type alkaloids. Consequently, both the amount of MSAL-type alkaloids and the amount of total alkaloids should be fully characterized to determine more accurately the relative toxicity of tall larkspur plant material.

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