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Journal of Animal Science Abstract - Animal Nutrition

Effects of dietary lipid sources on performance and apparent total tract digestibility of lipids and energy when fed to nursery pigs1

 

This article in JAS

  1. Vol. 92 No. 2, p. 627-636
     
    Received: Mar 17, 2013
    Accepted: Dec 05, 2013
    Published: November 24, 2014


    2 Corresponding author(s): eric_vanheugten@ncsu.edu
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doi:10.2527/jas.2013-6488
  1. S. M. Mendoza and
  2. E. van Heugten 2
  1. Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695

Abstract

Acidulated fats and oils are by-products of the fat-refining industry. They contain high levels of FFA and are 10% to 20% less expensive than refined fats and oils. Two studies were designed to measure the effects of dietary lipid sources low or high in FFA on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of lipids and GE in nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, 189 pigs at 14 d postweaning (BW of 9.32 ± 0.11 kg) were used for 21 d with 9 replicate pens per treatment and 3 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet without added lipids and 6 diets with 6% inclusion of lipids. Four lipid sources were combined to create the dietary treatments with 2 levels of FFA (0.40% or 54.0%) and 3 degrees of fat saturation (iodine value [IV] = 77, 100, or 123) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Lipid sources were soybean oil (0.3% FFA and IV = 129.4), soybean-cottonseed acid oil blend (70.5% FFA and IV = 112.9), choice white grease (0.6% FFA and IV = 74.8), and choice white acid grease (56.0% FFA and IV = 79.0). Addition of lipid sources decreased ADFI (810 vs. 872 g/d; P = 0.018) and improved G:F (716 vs. 646 g/kg; P < 0.001). Diets high in FFA tended (P = 0.08) to improve final BW (21.35 vs. 21.01 kg) and ADG (576 vs. 560 g/d). Lipid-supplemented diets had greater ATTD of lipids than control diets (67.4% vs. 29.7%; P < 0.001). Apparent total tract digestibility of lipids was greater in diets with low FFA (69.9% vs. 64.9%; P < 0.001) and decreased linearly with increasing IV (73.2%, 69.1%, and 67.2%). For GE, ATTD was greater in diets with low FFA (83.1% vs. 80.9%; P = 0.001). In Exp. 2, 252 pigs at 7 d postweaning (BW of 7.0 ± 0.2 kg) were used for 28 d with 9 replicate pens per treatment and 4 pigs per pen. Diets included a control diet without added lipids and 6 treatments with 2.5%, 5.0%, or 7.5% of lipids from either poultry fat (1.9% FFA) or acidulated poultry fat (37.8% FFA) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Addition of lipids increased (P < 0.001) final BW (19.9 vs. 18.4 kg) and ADG (460 vs. 405 g/d) regardless of source. Fat increased (P < 0.001) ADFI when added at 2.5% and then decreased ADFI with each further increment (663, 740, 681, and 653 g for 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5% fat, respectively). Inclusion of lipids linearly (P < 0.001) improved G:F (615, 615, 688, and 692 g/kg for 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5% fat, respectively) and ATTD of lipids (17.8%, 50.2%, 71.0%, and 77.3% for 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% fat, respectively) and GE (76.1%, 76.4%, 83.3%, and 84.4% for 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5% fat, respectively). Acidulated lipids resulted in similar performance compared with refined lipids and could be economical alternatives to more expensive lipid sources.

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