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Journal of Animal Science Abstract - Animal Nutrition

Effect of feeding dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal biohydrogenation, intestinal fatty acid profile, and gut microbial diversity evaluated through DNA pyro-sequencing

 

This article in JAS

  1. Vol. 92 No. 2, p. 733-743
     
    Received: Oct 04, 2013
    Accepted: Dec 14, 2013
    Published: November 24, 2014


    2 Corresponding author(s): pkononoff2@unl.edu
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doi:10.2527/jas.2013-7223
  1. E. Castillo-Lopez*11,
  2. H.A. Ramirez Ramirez*,
  3. T. J. Klopfenstein*,
  4. C. L. Anderson*,
  5. N. D. Aluthge*,
  6. S. C. Fernando*,
  7. T. Jenkins and
  8. P. J. Kononoff 2
  1. Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln 68583-0908
    Department of Animal & Veterinary Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on ruminal biohydrogenation and duodenal flow of fatty acids, and to evaluate effects on the ruminal and duodenal microbial community using Roche 454 pyro-sequencing. Three crossbred steers (average BW 780 ± 137 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae were used in a 3-diet, 6-period crossover design. Animals were housed in individual free stalls and fed twice daily at 0700 and 1900 h. Diets (DM basis) were 1) CONTROL, 19.5% corn bran, 20% sorghum silage, 60% brome hay, 0.5% trace minerals, and 0.25% urea, but no DDGS; 2) LOW DDGS, inclusion of 9.75% DDGS replacing equal percentage of corn bran; 3) HIGH DDGS, inclusion of 19.5% DDGS completely replacing corn bran. Feed ingredients and duodenal digesta samples were analyzed for fatty acid composition. The DNA was extracted from isolated mixed ruminal bacterial samples and from intestinal digesta samples. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced, and bacterial phylogenetic analysis was conducted. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Biohydrogenation of C18:1 increased (P < 0.01) with DDGS inclusion; means were 68.3, 75.6, and 79.3 ± 4.3% for CONTROL, LOW DDGS, and HIGH DDGS, respectively. In the same order, means of biohydrogenation of C18:2 (P < 0.05) were 84.1, 91.5, and 93.3 ± 3.4%. Duodenal flow of total fatty acids increased (P < 0.01) with DDGS inclusion; means were 134, 168, and 223 ± 33 g/d for CONTROL, LOW DDGS, and HIGH DDGS, respectively. In the same order, means of C18:0 flow (P < 0.01) were 51, 86, and 121 ± 18 g/d. DDGS did not affect the predominant bacterial phyla in the gut, which were Bacteroidetes (P = 0.62) and Firmicutes (P = 0.71). However, the phylum Fibrobacteres decreased (P < 0.01) when DDGS was fed with means of 5.5, 6.0 and 3.7 ± 0.6% for CONTROL, LOW DDGS, and HIGH DDGS, respectively. Fibrobacteres were lower (P < 0.01) in isolated ruminal bacterial samples compared to duodenal digesta samples with means of 0.1 and 10.1 ± 0.6%, respectively. Overall, the inclusion of DDGS in diets increased ruminal biohydrogenation of C18:1 and C18:2, which increased duodenal flow of C18:0. In addition, the bacterial community of the rumen clustered separately from that of the duodenum suggesting different bacterial diversity between isolated ruminal bacteria and duodenal digesta.

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