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Journal of Animal Science Abstract - Ruminant Nutrition

Effects of hydroxychloride sources of copper, zinc, and manganese on measures of supplement intake, mineral status, and pre- and postweaning performance of beef calves1


This article in JAS

  1. Vol. 95 No. 4, p. 1739-1750
    Received: Aug 22, 2016
    Accepted: Jan 20, 2017
    Published: April 13, 2017

    3 Corresponding author(s):

  1. L. S. Caramalac*†,
  2. A. Saran Netto,
  3. P. G. M. A. Martins*22,
  4. P. Moriel*,
  5. J. Ranches*,
  6. H. J. Fernandes and
  7. J. D. Arthington 3*
  1. * University of Florida, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, Ona 33865
     State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Aquidauana, Brazil
     University of Sao Paulo, Pirassununga, Brazil


Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Cu, Zn, and Mn source on measures of 1) preferential intake of mineral-concentrated supplements and 2) mineral status and pre- and postweaning performance of beef calves. In Exp. 1, 4 trials were conducted to assess the effect of source of Cu (750 mg/kg; Trial 1), Zn (2,000 mg/kg; Trial 2), Mn (3,000 mg/kg; Trial 3), and all 3 elements (Trial 4) on preferential intake of mineral-concentrated supplements. Supplements differed only by source of Cu, Zn, and Mn, which included hydroxychloride (hydroxy), sulfate, and organic options. In each trial, the 3 supplements were simultaneously offered to 8 pens of early-weaned calves (2 calves/pen; 126 ± 8.0 kg average BW) for a 4-h period and preferential intake was determined. When offered the opportunity to select among 3 supplement options, calves consumed more (P < 0.001) supplement containing hydroxy vs. organic or sulfate sources of Cu (Trial 1), Zn (Trial 2), and Mn (Trial 3). In Trial 4, when all 3 elements were combined within a single supplement, calves almost exclusively selected (P < 0.001) the hydroxy vs. organic or sulfate sources (82.9, 10.4, and 6.7% of total supplement intake, respectively [SEM 3.16]). In Exp. 2, calves were supplemented at a rate of 114 g/calf daily for 84 d before weaning (2 calves/pasture; 10 and 12 pastures in yr 1 and 2, respectively). Supplements were formulated to contain no supplemental minerals (control); hydroxy Cu, Zn, and Mn; or copper sulfate, zinc sulfate, and manganese oxide (sulfate/oxide). Total supplement intake was greater (P = 0.01) for calves consuming the hydroxy vs. the sulfate/oxide sources of Cu, Zn, and Mn (9.0 vs. 7.2 kg [SEM 0.45]). Preweaning calf BW gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.15) among treatments; however, calves provided mineral-fortified supplements had greater (P = 0.003) liver concentrations of Co and Se and tended (P = 0.07) to have greater liver concentrations of Cu at weaning compared with the controls. Calves provided mineral-fortified vs. control supplements had greater (P ≤ 0.05) peak concentrations of ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin and less BW gain during in the 16-d postweaning period. These data demonstrate greater voluntary intake of mineral-concentrated supplements among calves offered hydroxy vs. sulfate or organic sources of Cu, Zn, and Mn. Preweaning mineral-fortified supplementation increased calf mineral status, heightened inflammatory responsiveness, and decreased BW gain during the immediate postweaning period.

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