View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Summary of data generated from a North Dakota State University ewe nutrient restriction model1

Item Response in RES compared with CON
Measured during gestation
    Plasma concentrations d 130 of gestation2
        Maternal glucose Decreased 12%
        Fetal glucose Decreased 16%
        Maternal NEFA Increased 54%
        Fetal NEFA Increased 6% (NS)3
        Maternal BUN Decreased 10%
        Fetus BUN Decreased 12%
    Placental wt2,4 Similar
    Fetal wt2,4 Decreased 15 to 20%
    Umbilical blood flow (d 50 to 110)4 Decreased approximately 20%
    Umbilical vascular resistance5 Increased 15 to 25%
    Cot eNOS mRNA expression6 Decreased approximately 33%
    Car eNOS mRNA expression6 Decreased approximately 22%
Measured at term7
    Birth weight Decreased 13%
    Crown rump length Decreased 4%
    Abdominal girth Decreased 5%
    Placental wt Similar
    Organ characteristics4
        Heart wt Decreased 8%
        RV binucleated cell area Increased 36%
        LV binucleated cell area Increased 25%
        Ovarian follicle proliferation8 Decreased 40%
    Plasma IgG 24 h old9 Increased 33%
    Organ weights at 21 d10
        Brain Similar
        Heart Decreased 16%
        Total gastrointestinal Decreased 11%
        Liver Decreased 16%
        Visceral adiposity Decreased 23%
        Adrenal Decreased 11%
Offspring from 3 to 6 mo7,11
    Live weight, 6 mo Similar
    Glucose tolerance, 3 and 5 mo Decreased 40%
    Carcass weight Similar
    Internal fat mass12 Decreased 23% (NS)
1CON = 100% requirements; RES = 60% nutrient restriction from d 50 to d 130 or to term; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; Cot = cotyledonary; eNOS = endothelial nitric oxide synthase; Car = caruncle.
2From Lekatz et al. (2011b).
3NS = not statistically different at P < 0.05.
4From Lemley et al. (2013).
5From Lekatz et al. (2013).
6From Lekatz et al. (2011a).
7From Neville et al. (2010).
8From Grazul-Bilska et al. (2009).
9From Hammer et al. (2011).
10From Camacho et al. (2012).
11From Vonnahme et al. (2010).
12K. Vonnahme and J. Caton, unpublished data.