View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Basic input parameters used for VORTEX simulations of the viability in 15 F1 hybrid populations

 
Variable
No. of years 200
No. of iterations 100
Extinction definitions Only 1 sex remains
Lethal equivalents 3.14
% due to recessive lethals 100 (due to limitations in VORTEX)
Reproductive system Polygynous
Age of first offspring 1
Maximum breeding age 5
Sex ratio 50:50
% adult females breeding 100%
Mortality rates 0 to 1 yr 78%
Mortality rates after 1 yr 50%
% males in breeding pool 33.3%
Density dependent reproduction No
Specified age distribution Yes
Initial population size 10 (20, 50, 100)
Carrying capacity 30,000 (±3,000)
Harvest 0
Supplemented 0



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Results from simulations of the 15 F1 hybrid populations using basic parameters (Table 1) and with an initial population size of 10 individuals1

 
Population Hybrid Fecundity Relatedness det-r Stoc-r (SD) PE n (SD) HE (SD) HO (SD) Fin MedianTE MeanTE
P1 5+8 (b+b) 4.964 0.344 0.031 –0.03 (0.255) 0.96 415.2 (2,581.97) 0.1046 (0.0981) 0.1044 (0.0981) 0.8956 9 13.7
P2 10+11 (w+w) 4.995 0.335 0.034 –0.002 (0.21) 0.89 2,157.22 (6,600) 0.1039 (0.0679) 0.1037 (0.0679) 0.8963 11 14.6
P3 25+29 (W+W) 5.181 0.278 0.055 0.012 (0.198) 0.88 3,293.2 (9,200.75) 0.206 (0.204) 0.1504 (0.1) 0.8496 9 12
P4 13+14 (w+w) 5.467 0.19 0.085 0.053 (0.171) 0.78 6,429.8 (12,239.43) 0.223 (0.1575) 0.191 (0.0861) 0.809 14 13.4
P5 3+5 (b+b) 5.494 0.182 0.088 0.062 (0.154) 0.74 7,526.16 (12,848.91) 0.2513 (0.1577) 0.2221 (0.1097) 0.7779 13 12.4
P6 4+8 (b+b) 5.885 0.073 0.125 0.102 (0.132) 0.6 12,095.91 (14,975.77) 0.305 (0.1988) 0.2363 (0.1186) 0.7637 15 10.7
P7 22+23 (W+W) 5.982 0.033 0.138 0.119 (0.11) 0.49 14,813.54 (14,727.54) 0.338 (0.1186) 0.3305 (0.1118) 0.6695 0 11.2
P8 1+11 (b+w) 5.985 0.032 0.139 0.116 (0.129) 0.6 11,747.58 (14,553.76) 0.3113 (0.1544) 0.2804 (0.1206) 0.7196 15 10.8
P9 23+26 (W+W) 6.004 0.026 0.14 0.123 (0.11) 0.44 16,316.39 (14,706.89) 0.355 (0.1344) 0.3279 (0.1117) 0.6721 0 13.1
P10 9+33 (w+p) 6.043 0.014 0.144 0.122 (0.121) 0.5 14,717.02 (14,904.45) 0.3623 (0.1477) 0.3091 (0.1027) 0.6909 44 13.6
P11 8+21 (b+W) 6.055 0.011 0.145 0.127 (0.107) 0.4 18,004.41 (14,898.6) 0.3063 (0.1431) 0.2709 (0.1007) 0.7291 0 14.8
P12 28+32 (W+m) 6.078 0.004 0.147 0.129 (0.109) 0.45 16,514.75 (15,139.93) 0.3858 (0.1516) 0.3283 (0.1056) 0.6717 0 12.3
P13 5+12 (b+w) 6.08 0.002 0.147 0.127 (0.116) 0.5 14,786.55 (14,996.93) 0.3395 (0.1425) 0.2959 (0.1039) 0.7041 44 13.5
P14 6+31 (b+s) 6.087 0.001 0.148 0.129 (0.114) 0.49 15,140.18 (15,042.41) 0.3345 (0.1302) 0.3271 (0.1208) 0.6729 0 11.4
P15 8+16 (b+w) 6.318 –0.07 0.17 0.154 (0.105) 0.38 18,321.92 (14,568.72) 0.3447 (0.109) 0.3394 (0.1025) 0.6606 0 11.7
1The individual hybrid populations are specified (Hybrid) by the parental population number and color morph (b = black, w = white, W = wildtype, p = pearl, s = silver, and m = mahogany) and the fecundity and initial relatedness are specified. Deterministic growth rate (det-r), mean stochastic growth rate (Stoc-r), probability of extinction (PE), mean final population size (n), mean final expected heterozygosity (HE), observed heterozygosity (HO). mean final inbreeding coefficient (Fin), median (MedianTE), and mean (MeanTE) time to extinction. Standard deviations are shown in parentheses.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Results of the sensitivity analysis for 3 (low, medium and high initial relatedness) of the 15 F1 hybrid populations1

 
Sensitivity testing index 8.21 Stoc-r N 3.5 Stoc-r N 10.11 Stoc-r N
Juvenile mortality –10% 10.97 #5.77 30.48 22.87 nc 2.72
juvenile mortality –5% 12.60 8.54 34.19 34.29 nc 3.22
Juvenile mortality +5% 15.97 13.84 46.45 E nc E
Juvenile mortality +10% 17.99 E 37.9 E nc E
Adult mortality –10% 2.66 2.4 7.26 6.73 nc 0.78
Adult mortality –5% 2.99 4.79 9.35 15.9 nc 0.99
Adult mortality +5% 3.38 5.87 14.19 11.24 nc 0.6
Adult mortality +10% 2.92 3.22 6.94 4.09 nc E
Fecundity –10% 4.16 3.13 14.52 9.44 nc E
Fecundity –5% 4.29 1.96 20.97 14.41 nc 0.6
Fecundity +5% 3.77 2.93 11.29 12.73 nc 0.71
Fecundity +10% 3.77 2.21 9.35 8.06 nc 0.98
Lethal Equivalents –10% 0.19 0.89 0.32 2.37 nc 0.14
Lethal Equivalents –5% 0.26 0.55 0.32 3.58 nc 0.45
Lethal Equivalents +5% 0.26 2.33 3.55 5.4 nc 0.21
Lethal Equivalents +10% 0.06 0.17 0.65 1.42 nc 0.14
Yearly supplement 10 individuals 0.01 #0.06 0.05 #0.29 nc 0.04
Yearly supplement 20 individuals 0.01 #0.03 0.03 #0.14 nc 0.02
Yearly supplement 30 individuals 0.01 #0.02 0.02 #0.1 nc 0.01
Yearly supplement 40 individuals 0.00 #0.02 0.02 #0.07 nc 0.01
Harvest from yr 50 (4,000) A A a a a a
Harvest from yr 75 (4,000) A A a a a a
Harvest from yr 100 (4,000) A A a a a a
Initial population size = 20 0.00 0.2 0.06 0.72 nc 0
Initial population size = 50 0.01 #0.12 0.05 #0.55 nc 0.01
Initial population size = 100 0.01 #0.06 0.03 #0.29 nc 0.01
1For explanation of the calculation of the sensitivity index, see the Materials and Methods section. High index indicates that the parameter is sensitive to the viability. E = all population went extinct; a = could not be calculated due to complex parameters (see Fig. 4a to c); # = population reached carrying capacity; nc = could not be calculated. Stoc-r = stochastic growth rate; N = population size.