View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Percentage of variability of ADFI explained by the factors or traits included in the multiple linear regression model used for ADFI prediction for each breed

 
Breed1
Factor or trait2 LR LWD LWS PP
Contemporary group + pen size 24.84 23.91 28.30 25.48
ADG 28.97 35.09 33.40 47.08
LMC 15.71 12.13 10.58 5.81
BFT 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.04
DP 0.16 0.15 0.09 0.07
AMW 0.84 1.14 1.06 1.38
RFI 29.46 27.54 26.52 20.12
1LR = Landrace dam breed; LWD = Large White dam breed; LWS = Large White sire breed; PP = Piétrain sire breed.
2LMC = lean meat content; BFT = backfat thickness; DP = dressing percentage; AMW = average metabolic weight; RFI = residual feed intake.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Summary statistics of traits for each breed

 
Breed1
LR (n = 6470)
LWD (n = 10,694)
LWS (n = 2342)
PP (n = 2448)
Trait2 Mean SD3 Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
BW1, kg 34.8 1.8 34.8 1.8 34.9 1.9 34.8 2.1
BW2, kg 108.8 6.1 109.5 6.4 110.1 6.8 107.1 6.7
RFI, g/d 0 149 0 150 0 158 0 109
FCR, kg feed/kg BW gain 2.79 0.23 2.69 0.21 2.62 0.21 2.49 0.17
ADFI, kg/d 2.58 0.24 2.57 0.25 2.55 0.26 2.08 0.20
ADG, g/d 928 86 958 93 978 94 839 86
Ne, kg 3.36 0.43 3.18 0.40 3.03 0.40 2.61 0.31
Pe, kg 0.63 0.08 0.60 0.07 0.58 0.07 0.51 0.06
Nr, % 64.9 3.3 62.9 3.2 61.3 3.3 57.9 2.9
Pr, % 63.6 3.0 62.3 2.9 61.2 3.0 59.3 2.7
LMC, % 54.0 3.0 56.1 2.8 58.3 2.6 65.3 1.9
BFT, mm 24.1 3.3 23.8 3.2 21.8 3.2 18.1 2.8
DP, % 78.0 1.3 78.6 1.3 79.3 1.2 82.2 1.1
L*, point 50.6 3.7 51.0 3.6 50.8 3.7 52.8 3.8
pHu, point 5.70 0.19 5.71 0.18 5.74 0.19 5.63 0.15
WHC, point 9.8 6.5 10.3 6.4 10.3 6.4 2.6 3.3
MQI, point 11.1 2.9 11.1 2.8 11.5 3.0 9.1 2.2
1LR = Landrace dam breed; LWD = Large White dam breed; LWS = Large White sire breed; PP = Piétrain sire breed.
2BW1 = BWat the beginning of the test; BW2 = BW at the end of the test; RFI: residual feed intake; FCR = feed conversion ratio; Ne = N excreted during the test period; Pe = P excreted during the test period; Nr = ratio of N excreted over N intake during the test period; Pr = ratio of P excreted over P intake during the test period; LMC = lean meat content; BFT = backfat thickness; DP = dressing percentage; L* = lightness of the meat of the gluteus superficialis muscle; pHu = ultimate pH measurement of the semimembranosus muscle; WHC = water holding capacity of the gluteus superficialis muscle; MQI = meat quality index.
3SD = phenotypic SD of traits, corrected for the fixed effects and covariates included in the model used for genetic parameters calculation.



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Estimates of h2 and proportions of variance due to litter effect (c2) for each breed2 (SE in parentheses)

 
h2
c2
Trait1 LR LWD LWS PP LR LWD LWS PP
RFI 0.23 (0.03) 0.21 (0.03) 0.26 (0.06) 0.33 (0.06) 0.04 (0.03) 0.13 (0.02) 0.05 (0.05) 0.05 (0.04)
FCR 0.35 (0.04) 0.30 (0.03) 0.30 (0.06) 0.40 (0.06) 0.07 (0.03) 0.13 (0.02) 0.10 (0.05) 0.02 (0.04)
ADFI 0.27 (0.04) 0.34 (0.03) 0.21 (0.06) 0.48 (0.06) 0.05 (0.03) 0.10 (0.02) 0.11 (0.05) 0.00 (0.04)
ADG 0.26 (0.04) 0.33 (0.03) 0.05 (0.04) 0.48 (0.06) 0.06 (0.03) 0.07 (0.02) 0.12 (0.05) 0.00 (0.04)
Ne 0.37 (0.04) 0.33 (0.03) 0.31 (0.06) 0.40 (0.06) 0.05 (0.03) 0.13 (0.02) 0.08 (0.04) 0.03 (0.04)
Pe 0.34 (0.04) 0.30 (0.03) 0.29 (0.06) 0.40 (0.06) 0.06 (0.03) 0.13 (0.02) 0.09 (0.04) 0.03 (0.04)
Nr 0.43 (0.04) 0.37 (0.03) 0.36 (0.07) 0.41 (0.06) 0.05 (0.03) 0.12 (0.02) 0.07 (0.04) 0.00 (0.04)
Pr 0.34 (0.04) 0.30 (0.03) 0.30 (0.06) 0.41 (0.06) 0.07 (0.03) 0.13 (0.02) 0.09 (0.04) 0.00 (0.04)
LMC 0.66 (0.04) 0.60 (0.03) 0.55 (0.07) 0.49 (0.06) 0.04 (0.02) 0.07 (0.02) 0.06 (0.04) 0.00 (0.04)
BFT 0.61 (0.04) 0.51 (0.03) 0.53 (0.07) 0.38 (0.06) 0.00 (0.03) 0.08 (0.02) 0.04 (0.04) 0.03 (0.05)
DP 0.32 (0.04) 0.40 (0.03) 0.31 (0.06) 0.44 (0.06) 0.13 (0.03) 0.08 (0.02) 0.12 (0.04) 0.09 (0.05)
L* 0.31 (0.04) 0.27 (0.03) 0.18 (0.05) 0.21 (0.05) 0.07 (0.03) 0.03 (0.02) 0.03 (0.05) 0.06 (0.04)
pHu 0.22 (0.03) 0.21 (0.02) 0.09 (0.04) 0.23 (0.05) 0.03 (0.02) 0.06 (0.02) 0.03 (0.05) 0.04 (0.04)
WHC 0.23 (0.03) 0.15 (0.02) 0.16 (0.05) 0.08 (0.04) 0.02 (0.03) 0.03 (0.02) 0.02 (0.05) 0.00 (0.04)
MQI 0.29 (0.03) 0.24 (0.02) 0.14 (0.05) 0.27 (0.05) 0.03 (0.03) 0.06 (0.02) 0.03 (0.05) 0.05 (0.04)
1RFI = residual feed intake; FCR = feed conversion ratio; Ne = N excreted during the test period; Pe = P excreted during the test period; Nr = ratio of N excreted over N intake during the test period; Pr = ratio of P excreted over P intake during the test period; LMC = lean meat content; BFT = backfat thickness; DP = dressing percentage; L* = lightness of the meat of the gluteus superficialis muscle; pHu = ultimate pH measurement of the semimembranosus muscle; WHC = water holding capacity of the gluteus superficialis muscle; MQI = meat quality index.
2LR = French Landrace dam breed; LWD = Large White dam breed; LWS = Large White sire breed; PP = Piétrain sire breed.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Phenotypic correlations of residual feed intake and feed conversion ratio with all recorded traits for each breed (SE in parentheses)

 
RFI
FCR
Trait1 LR2 LWD2 LWS2 PP2 LR LWD LWS PP
FCR 0.71 (0.01) 0.74 (0.01) 0.77 (0.01) 0.80 (0.01)
ADFI 0.62 (0.01) 0.60 (0.01) 0.61 (0.02) 0.51 (0.02) 0.42 (0.01) 0.37 (0.01) 0.43 (0.02) 0.21 (0.02)
ADG 0.00 (0.01) 0.00 (0.01) 0.00 (0.02) –0.06 (0.03) –0.45 (0.01) –0.42 (0.01) –0.35 (0.02) –0.45 (0.02)
Ne 0.67 (0.01) 0.71 (0.01) 0.75 (0.01) 0.79 (0.01) 0.99 (0.00) 0.99 (0.00) 0.99 (0.00) 0.99 (0.00)
Pe 0.71 (0.01) 0.74 (0.01) 0.77 (0.01) 0.80 (0.01) 0.99 (0.00) 0.99 (0.00) 0.99 (0.00) 0.99 (0.00)
Nr 0.62 (0.01) 0.66 (0.01) 0.70 (0.01) 0.77 (0.01) 0.96 (0.00) 0.97 (0.01) 0.97 (0.01) 0.98 (0.00)
Pr 0.71 (0.01) 0.74 (0.01) 0.77 (0.01) 0.80 (0.01) 0.99 (0.01) 0.99 (0.01) 0.99 (0.01) 0.99 (0.01)
LMC 0.00 (0.02) 0.01 (0.01) 0.00 (0.02) –0.01 (0.02) –0.50 (0.01) –0.40 (0.01) –0.39 (0.02) –0.21 (0.02)
BFT –0.01 (0.02) 0.00 (0.01) 0.00 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02) 0.37 (0.01) 0.30 (0.01) 0.31 (0.02) 0.14 (0.02)
DP 0.00 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) 0.00 (0.02) –0.02 (0.02) 0.05 (0.02) 0.09 (0.01) 0.01 (0.02) 0.06 (0.02)
L* –0.03 (0.01) –0.03 (0.01) –0.09 (0.02) –0.10 (0.02) –0.12 (0.01) –0.09 (0.01) –0.10 (0.02) –0.12 (0.02)
pHu 0.01 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) 0.04 (0.02) 0.09 (0.02) 0.00 (0.01) 0.04 (0.01) 0.07 (0.02) 0.08 (0.02)
WHC –0.01 (0.01) –0.01 (0.01) 0.00 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02) –0.10 (0.01) –0.06 (0.01) –0.06 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02)
MQI 0.01 (0.01) 0.02 (0.01) 0.05 (0.02) 0.10 (0.02) 0.01 (0.01) 0.04 (0.01) 0.06 (0.02) 0.11 (0.02)
1RFI = residual feed intake; FCR = feed conversion ratio; Ne = N excreted during the test period; Pe = P excreted during the test period; Nr = ratio of N excreted over N intake during the test period; Pr = ratio of P excreted over P intake during the test period; LMC = lean meat content; BFT = backfat thickness; DP = dressing percentage; L* = lightness of the meat of the gluteus superficialis muscle; pHu = ultimate pH measurement of the semimembranosus muscle; WHC = water holding capacity of the gluteus superficialis muscle; MQI = meat quality index.
2LR = French Landrace dam breed; LWD = Large White dam breed; LWS = Large White sire breed; PP = Piétrain sire breed.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Genetic correlations of residual feed intake and feed conversion ratio with all recorded traits for each breed (SE in parentheses)

 
RFI
FCR
Trait1 LR2 LWD2 LWS2 PP2 LR LWD LWS PP
FCR 0.53 (0.07) 0.52 (0.05) 0.69 (0.08) 0.85 (0.04)
ADFI 0.61 (0.06) 0.55 (0.05) 0.72 (0.09) 0.48 (0.09) 0.51 (0.07) 0.37 (0.06) 0.88 (0.08) 0.20 (0.11)
ADG 0.07 (0.11) 0.16 (0.08) 0.09 (0.30) –0.05 (0.12) –0.51 (0.07) –0.39 (0.06) –0.09 (0.28) –0.42 (0.09)
Ne 0.48 (0.07) 0.46 (0.06) 0.64 (0.09) 0.84 (0.04) 0.99 (0.00) 0.99 (0.00) 0.99 (0.00) 0.99 (0.00)
Pe 0.52 (0.07) 0.51 (0.05) 0.70 (0.08) 0.85 (0.04) 0.99 (0.00) 0.99 (0.00) 0.99 (0.02) 0.99 (0.00)
Nr 0.41 (0.07) 0.38 (0.06) 0.57 (0.10) 0.83 (0.04) 0.97 (0.01) 0.97 (0.01) 0.98 (0.01) 0.98 (0.01)
Pr 0.52 (0.07) 0.52 (0.05) 0.69 (0.08) 0.86 (0.04) 0.99 (0.01) 0.99 (0.01) 0.99 (0.01) 0.99 (0.01)
LMC 0.03 (0.08) 0.08 (0.07) –0.04 (0.13) –0.15 (0.12) –0.74 (0.04) –0.64 (0.04) –0.71 (0.08) –0.25 (0.11)
BFT –0.11 (0.08) –0.06 (0.07) 0.04 (0.14) 0.07 (0.13) 0.56 (0.05) 0.54 (0.05) 0.63 (0.10) 0.21 (0.12)
DP 0.03 (0.10) 0.01 (0.08) –0.09 (0.16) –0.11 (0.12) –0.02 (0.09) 0.18 (0.07) –0.06 (0.15) 0.07 (0.12)
L* –0.08 (0.10) –0.17 (0.08) –0.19 (0.17) –0.42 (0.14) –0.32 (0.08) –0.35 (0.07) –0.20 (0.17) –0.34 (0.14)
pHu 0.11 (0.11) 0.14 (0.08) –0.05 (0.23) 0.22 (0.14) 0.01 (0.09) 0.18 (0.07) 0.08 (0.21) 0.13 (0.13)
WHC –0.13 (0.11) 0.14 (0.09) –0.36 (0.18) 0.30 (0.22) –0.34 (0.09) –0.12 (0.08) –0.50 (0.17) 0.25 (0.23)
MQI 0.07 (0.10) 0.17 (0.08) –0.06 (0.20) 0.31 (0.13) 0.03 (0.09) 0.21 (0.07) –0.01 (0.19) 0.21 (0.13)
1RFI = residual feed intake; FCR = feed conversion ratio; Ne = N excreted during the test period; Pe = P excreted during the test period; Nr = ratio of N excreted over N intake during the test period; Pr = ratio of P excreted over P intake during the test period; LMC = lean meat content; BFT = backfat thickness; DP = dressing percentage; L* = lightness of the meat of the gluteus superficialis muscle; pHu = ultimate pH measurement of the semimembranosus muscle; WHC = water holding capacity of the gluteus superficialis muscle; MQI = meat quality index.
2LR = French Landrace dam breed; LWD = Large White dam breed; LWS = Large White sire breed; PP = Piétrain sire breed.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Phenotypic correlations of excretion traits with consumption, growth, and carcass traits for each breed (SE in parentheses)

 
Breed1 Trait2 ADFI ADG LMC BFT DP
LR Ne 0.56 (0.01) –0.50 (0.01) –0.57 (0.01) 0.42 (0.01) 0.05 (0.02)
Pe 0.55 (0.01) –0.52 (0.01) –0.51 (0.01) 0.38 (0.01) 0.06 (0.02)
Nr 0.47 (0.01) –0.38 (0.01) –0.64 (0.01) 0.48 (0.01) 0.04 (0.02)
Pr 0.44 (0.01) –0.43 (0.01) –0.51 (0.01) 0.38 (0.01) 0.05 (0.02)
LWD Ne 0.53 (0.01) –0.48 (0.01) –0.47 (0.01) 0.36 (0.01) 0.10 (0.01)
Pe 0.51 (0.01) –0.50 (0.01) –0.41 (0.01) 0.31 (0.01) 0.10 (0.01)
Nr 0.44 (0.01) –0.33 (0.01) –0.55 (0.01) 0.43 (0.01) 0.10 (0.01)
Pr 0.39 (0.01) –0.40 (0.01) –0.41 (0.01) 0.31 (0.01) 0.10 (0.01)
LWS Ne 0.62 (0.02) –0.41 (0.02) –0.46 (0.02) 0.36 (0.02) 0.02 (0.02)
Pe 0.60 (0.02) –0.44 (0.02) –0.41 (0.02) 0.31 (0.02) 0.02 (0.02)
Nr 0.50 (0.02) –0.26 (0.02) –0.53 (0.02) 0.42 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02)
Pr 0.45 (0.02) –0.33 (0.02) –0.40 (0.02) 0.31 (0.02) 0.02 (0.02)
PP Ne 0.40 (0.02) –0.53 (0.02) –0.27 (0.02) 0.18 (0.02) 0.05 (0.02)
Pe 0.37 (0.02) –0.56 (0.02) –0.22 (0.02) 0.15 (0.02) 0.07 (0.02)
Nr 0.28 (0.02) –0.38 (0.02) –0.32 (0.02) 0.22 (0.02) 0.04 (0.02)
Pr 0.23 (0.02) –0.43 (0.02) –0.21 (0.02) 0.15 (0.02) 0.07 (0.02)
1LR = French Landrace dam breed; LWD = Large White dam breed; LWS = Large White sire breed; PP = Piétrain sire breed.
2LMC = lean meat content; BFT = backfat thickness; DP = dressing percentage; Ne = N excreted during the test period; Pe = P excreted during the test period; Nr = ratio of N excreted over N intake during the test period; Pr = ratio of P excreted over P intake during the test period.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Genetic correlations of excretion traits with consumption, growth, and carcass traits for each breed (SE in parentheses)

 
Breed1 Trait2 ADFI ADG LMC BFT DP
LR Ne 0.59 (0.06) –0.55 (0.07) –0.80 (0.03) 0.62 (0.05) –0.06 (0.09)
Pe 0.59 (0.06) –0.55 (0.07) –0.75 (0.04) 0.57 (0.05) –0.04 (0.09)
Nr 0.54 (0.06) –0.46 (0.07) –0.85 (0.03) 0.68 (0.04) –0.06 (0.04)
Pr 0.53 (0.07) –0.49 (0.07) –0.75 (0.04) 0.59 (0.05) –0.03 (0.09)
LWD Ne 0.55 (0.05) –0.46 (0.06) –0.72 (0.04) 0.62 (0.04) 0.18 (0.06)
Pe 0.54 (0.05) –0.50 (0.05) –0.66 (0.04) 0.56 (0.05) 0.18 (0.07)
Nr 0.44 (0.05) –0.29 (0.06) –0.80 (0.03) 0.69 (0.04) 0.17 (0.06)
Pr 0.40 (0.06) –0.36 (0.06) –0.66 (0.04) 0.56 (0.05) 0.18 (0.07)
LWS Ne 0.95 (0.05) –0.19 (0.28) –0.76 (0.07) 0.68 (0.09) –0.09 (0.15)
Pe 0.95 (0.05) –0.21 (0.28) –0.71 (0.08) 0.64 (0.10) –0.06 (0.15)
Nr 0.89 (0.07) –0.05 (0.28) –0.82 (0.06) 0.74 (0.07) –0.11 (0.14)
Pr 0.88 (0.08) –0.09 (0.28) –0.71 (0.08) 0.65 (0.09) –0.07 (0.15)
PP Ne 0.46 (0.09) –0.51 (0.08) –0.36 (0.10) 0.27 (0.12) 0.05 (.012)
Pe 0.40 (0.10) –0.56 (0.08) –0.29 (0.10) 0.23 (0.12) 0.06 (0.12)
Nr 0.31 (0.10) –0.32 (0.10) –0.40 (0.10) 0.31 (0.11) 0.05 (0.12)
Pr 0.22 (0.10) –0.40 (0.10) –0.26 (0.10) 0.22 (0.12) 0.07 (0.12)
1LR = French Landrace dam breed; LWD = Large White dam breed; LWS = Large White sire breed; PP = Piétrain sire breed
2LMC = lean meat content; BFT = backfat thickness; DP = dressing percentage; Ne = N excreted during the test period; Pe = P excreted during the test period; Nr = ratio of N excreted over N intake during the test period; Pr = ratio of P excreted over P intake during the test period.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 8.

Estimated contrasts between halothane genotypes (Nn-NN and nn-NN)1 for N and P excretion traits in the Piétrain breed

 
Trait2 Nn-NN nn-NN
Ne, kg —0.076 (0.030) —0.145 (0.032)
Pe, kg —0.012 (0.006) —0.022 (0.006)
Nr, % —0.81 (0.28) —1.65 (0.30)
Pr, % —0.54 (0.26) —0.98 (0.28)
1Numbers of NN, Nn, and nn pigs = 195, 520, and 1729, respectively.
2Ne = N excreted during the test period; Pe = P excreted during the test period; Nr = ratio of N excreted over N intake during the test period; Pr = ratio of P excreted over P intake during the test period.