View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Composition of the diet

 
Item Amount (g∙kg−1)
Ingredients
Corn 60.4
Wheat (Rialto) 525.0
Soybean meal 48 284.0
Corn gluten 60 31.0
Soybean oil 60.0
DL methionine 1.2
L-Lysine 78 2.2
Calcium carbonate 13.4
Dicalcium phosphate 15.8
Sodium chloride 3.0
Mineral and vitamin mix1 3.5
Robenidine2 0.5
Characteristics3 (calculated)
AMEn4 (kcal∙kg−1) 2,943
CP, % 20.5
Lysine (%) 1.16
Methionine + Cystine (%) 0.76
Calcium (%) 1.11
Total phosphorus (%) 0.66
Non-phytate phosphorus (%) 0.42
1Supplied per kilogram of diet: Co, 0.5 mg; Cu, 16 mg; Fe, 47 mg; I, 1.6 mg; Mn, 65 mg; Se, 0.2 mg; Zn, 72 mg; retinyl acetate, 12,000 IU; cholecalciferol, 3440 IU; dl-α tocopheryl acetate, 80 mg; thiamine, 4 mg; riboflavin, 6.4 mg; calcium pantothenate, 20 mg; vitamin B12, 0.02 mg; menadione, 4 mg; pyridoxine hydrochloride, 5.6 mg; folic acid, 0.4 mg; biotin, 0.24 mg; niacin, 80 mg; choline, 440 mg; antioxidant, 40 mg.
2Robenz, Alpharma Animal Health, Bridgewater, NJ.
3Calculated (INRA-AFZ, 2004).
4Apparent metabolizable Energy corrected to 0 nitrogen retention.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

General mean (±SD) on all generations and least square means (±SE) on the last generation for all traits analyzed in D+ and D− birds, selected respectively for their high or low digestive efficiency

 
Variable1 n Mean ± SD D+2 D−2 D+/D− (%)3 Line effect (P-value)
BW23, g – last generation 592 453 ± 78 490 ± 3.62 428 ± 3.62 +14.5 < 0.001
–all generations 4412 449 ± 70
FI, g – last generation 586 324 ± 73 285 ± 3.19 363 ± 3.25 −21.5 < 0.001
– all generations 4214 313 ± 85
AMEn, kcal∙kg MS−1 – last generation 584 2879 ± 592 3278 ± 25.6 2460 ± 25.7 +33.3 < .0.001
– all generations 4384 2875 ± 637
FCR, g∙g−1 – last generation 586 2.15 ± 0.67 1.72 ± 0.08 2.72 ± 0.08 −36.8 < .0.001
–all generations 4278 2.09 ± 0.75
RFI, g – last generation 586 0.00 ± 69.1 −33.2 ± 3.15 34.9 ± 3.20 −195.1 < .0.001
– all generations 2300 0.00 ± 44.6
CDU-DM, % – last generation 584 67.2 ± 12.2 75.4 ± 0.56 58.8 ± 0.56 +28.2 < .0.001
– all generations 4396 60.2 ± 13.5
FT, °C 598 40.2 ± 0.4 40.2 ± 0.02 40.2 ± 0.02 0.0 0.724
DIT, °C∙g−1 574 0.021 ± 0.024 0.023 ± 0.001 0.019 ± 0.001 +21.1 0.079
Breast meat yield, g∙kg−1 587 52.3 ± 4.29 52.4 ± 0.25 52.2 ± 0.25 +0.4 0.531
Abdominal fat yield, g∙kg−1 588 11.6 ± 5.31 12.5 ± 0.30 10.8 ± 0.30 +15.7 < .0.001
Ash content, % 592 41.0 ± 2.13 41.1 ± 0.12 41.0 ± 0.12 +0.2 0.597
Relative dry tibia weight, g∙kg−1 600 3.15 ± 0.35 3.25 ± 0.02 3.05 ± 0.02 +6.6 < .0.001
Relative ash weight, g∙kg−1 591 1.29 ± 0.14 1.34 ± 0.01 1.24 ± 0.01 +8.1 < .0.001
Relative tibia length, mm∙kg−1 590 145 ± 21.5 140 ± 1.06 152 ± 1.05 −7.9 < 0.001
Relative tibia diameter, mm∙kg−1 598 10.3 ± 1.29 10.2 ± 0.07 10.6 ± 0.07 −3.8 < 0.001
BBS, N 608 104 ± 31.3 116 ± 1.51 87.9 ± 1.51 +32.0 < 0.001
PE, g DM 592 1.06 ± 0.44 0.81 ± 0.02 1.28 ± 0.02 −36.7 < 0.001
PI, g DM 601 1.97 ± 0.45 1.72 ± 22.4 2.17 ± 22.5 −20.7 < 0.001
PE: PI, g∙g−1 592 0.52 ± 0.12 0.47 ± 0.01 0.58 ± 0.01 −19.0 < 0.001
NE, g DM 598 5.07 ± 2.48 3.40 ± 0.11 6.59 ± 0.11 −48.4 < 0.001
NI, g DM 595 9.30 ± 2.09 8.15 ± 0.10 10.3 ± 0.10 −20.9 < 0.001
NE: NI, g∙g−1 591 0.52 ± 0.15 0.41 ± 0.01 0.63 ± 0.01 −34.9 < 0.001
1BW23 = BW at 23 d of age; FI = Feed intake between 17 and 23 d; AMEn = Apparent metabolisable energy corrected for 0 nitrogen; FCR = feed conversion ratio between 17 and 23 d; RFI = residual feed intake; CDU-DM = coefficient of digestive use of the DM; FT = Basal metabolic temperature; DIT = diet-induced thermogenesis; BBS = Bone breaking strength; PE = phosphorus excreted between 17 and 23 d; PI = phosphorus intake between 17 and 23 d; PE:PI = phosphorus excreted to phosphorus intake ratio; NE = nitrogen excreted between 17 and 23 d; NI = nitrogen intake between 17 and 23 d; NE:NI = nitrogen excreted to nitrogen intake ratio.
2D+ line is selected for high digestive efficiency and D- line is selected for low digestive efficiency.
3Relative difference between D+ and D- calculated as 100×(D+ mean/D- mean-1) when D+ mean > D- mean, as 100 × (1-D+ mean/D- mean) when D+ mean < D- mean.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Estimated phenotypic correlations (below the diagonal in italics) for D+ selected for their high digestive efficiency (before the brackets) and D- selected for their low digestive efficiency (within brackets), and estimations (±SE) of heritability (on the diagonal) and genetic correlations (above the diagonal) for temperature, body composition, and bone characteristics

 
Traits1 FT DIT BRY AFY TAC TW TAW TL TD BBS
FT 0.12 ± 0.042 −0.53 ± ne3 0.33 ± 0.19 0.06 ± 0.24 0.06 ± 0.19 0.44 ± 0.19 0.42 ± 0.16 −0.39 ± 0.19 −0.24 ± ne 0.37 ± 0.18
DIT -0.784(−0.77)5 0.13 ± 0.05 −0.45 ± 0.17 −0.11 ± 0.23 0.03 ± 0.20 −0.67 ± 0.16 −0.53 ± ne 0.62 ± ne 0.33 ± ne −0.79 ± 0.20
BRY 0.04(0.06) -0.02(−0.10) 0.56 ± 0.08 −0.39 ± 0.19 0.12 ± 0.14 0.18 ± 0.14 0.25 ± 0.12 −0.27 ± 0.14 −0.08 ± 0.14 0.12 ± 0.06
AFY 0.06(0.07) -0.11(−0.03) 0.03(−0.05) 0.28 ± 0.08 −0.37 ± 0.16 0.09 ± 0.16 −0.13 ± 0.17 −0.31 ± ne −0.67 ± 0.14 0.16 ± 0.15
TAC 0.15(0.04) -0.12(−0.01) -0.03(0.01) 0.00(0.00) 0.41 ± 0.05 −0.10 ± 0.14 0.40 ± 0.11 0.01 ± 0.15 0.04 ± 0.14 0.22 ± 0.11
TW 0.06(0.08) -0.05(−0.09) 0.09(0.13) -0.01(−0.04) -0.15(0.00) 0.38 ± 0.07 0.85 ± 0.04 −0.26 ± ne 0.07 ± ne 0.69 ± 0.08
TAW 0.12(0.12) -0.06(−0.12) 0.06(0.16) 0.06(−0.09) 0.38(0.46) 0.80(0.83) 0.52 ± 0.07 −0.20 ± ne 0.06 ± 0.13 0.67 ± ne
TL -0.22(−0.13) 0.28(0.10) -0.16(−0.28) -0.23(−0.36) -0.18(−0.21) -0.00(−0.04) -0.09(−0.14) 0.61 ± 0.05 0.82 ± 0.04 −0.70 ± ne
TD -0.16(−0.13) 0.22(0.10) -0.02(−0.11) -0.22(−0.35) 0.00(−0.20) 0.16(0.14) 0.15(0.05) 0.80(0.79) 0.74 ± 0.07 −0.40 ± ne
BBS 0.18(0.07) -0.22(−0.11) 0.09(0.29) 0.15(0.22) 0.39(0.34) 0.41(0.44) 0.58(0.61) -0.67(−0.71) -0.42(−0.42) 0.77 ± 0.07
1FT = Basal metabolic temperature; DIT = diet-induced thermogenesis; BRY = breast yield; AFY = abdominal fat yield; TAC = tibia ash content; TW = relative tibia weight; TAW = relative tibia ash weight; TL = tibia length; TD = tibia diam.; BBS = Bone breaking strength; ne = not estimated.
2Heritability are written in bold on the diagonal.
3Genetic correlations above the diagonal.
4Phenotypic correlations in D+ line (in italics before brackets) below the diagonal.
5Phenotypic correlations in D- line (in italics within brackets) below the diagonal.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Genetic correlations (±SE) and phenotypic correlations between nitrogen and phosphorus traits and temperature, body composition, and bone characteristics

 
Traits1 Type2 PE PI PE: PI NE NI NE: NI
FT G 0.11 ± 0.19 0.14 ± 0.20 0.00 ± 0.16 −0.01 ± 0.16 0.15 ± 0.21 −0.16 ± ne
P-D+ -0.09 -0.00 -0.10 -0.18 0.01 -0.22
P-D- -0.04 -0.01 -0.04 -0.04 0.01 -0.07
DIT G −0.32 ± ne −0.59 ± ne 0.03 ± 0.22 0.30 ± ne −0.59 ± 0.15 −0.05 ± ne
P-D+ -0.08 -0.16 -0.01 -0.04 -0.15 0.01
P-D- -0.10 -0.13 -0.05 -0.09 -0.15 -0.03
BRY G −0.08 ± 0.13 0.06 ± ne −0.30 ± 0.12 −0.09 ± 0.11 0.08 ± ne −0.33 ± 0.10
P-D+ -0.09 0.03 -0.13 -0.10 0.01 -0.12
P-D- -0.04 0.07 -0.12 -0.05 0.06 -0.15
AFY G 0.19 ± 0.15 0.09 ± 0.15 0.38 ± 0.19 0.05 ± ne 0.09 ± 0.16 0.06 ± 0.11
P-D+ 0.15 0.26 0.05 0.19 0.26 0.13
P-D- -0.31 -0.28 -0.18 -0.35 -0.28 -0.27
TAC G −0.46 ± ne −0.13 ± 0.13 −0.78 ± ne −0.29 ± 0.11 −0.14 ± 0.13 −0.40 ± 0.09
P-D+ -0.07 -0.09 -0.15 -0.02 0.09 -0.10
P-D- -0.08 0.05 -0.20 -0.06 0.07 -0.16
TW G 0.22 ± 0.13 0.44 ± 0.11 −0.25 ± 0.11 0.21 ± 0.11 0.46 ± 0.11 −0.11 ± 0.08
P-D+ -0.14 -0.01 -0.14 -0.11 0.00 -0.11
P-D- 0.02 0.09 -0.04 0.0 0.08 -0.07
TAW G −0.14 ± 0.13 0.21 ± 0.12 −0.69 ± 0.07 −0.03 ± 0.11 0.21 ± ne −0.36 ± 0.10
P-D+ -0.17 0.02 -0.21 -0.11 0.04 -0.14
P-D- 0.04 0.18 -0.12 0.04 0.19 -0.11
TL G −0.33 ± ne −0.50 ± ne −0.02 ± ne 0.35 ± 0.07 −0.50 ± ne −0.07 ± ne
P-D+ -0.20 -0.51 0.03 -0.04 -0.51 0.21
P-D- 0.23 0.02 0.31 0.26 0.02 0.37
TD G −0.43 ± 0.08 −0.37 ± ne −0.41 ± ne −0.16 ± ne −0.30 ± ne −0.15 ± ne
P-D+ -0.20 -0.45 -0.02 -0.06 -0.45 0.15
P-D- 0.13 -0.01 0.18 0.15 -0.01 0.22
BBS G 0.11 ± ne 0.49 ± 0.06 −0.45 ± 0.11 0.13 ± 0.09 0.49 ± 0.06 −0.32 ± ne
P-D+ 0.05 0.41 -0.16 -0.02 0.41 -0.24
P-D- -0.09 0.11 -0.23 -0.14 0.10 -0.31
1FT = Basal metabolic temperature; DIT = diet-induced thermogenesis; BRY = breast yield; AFY = abdominal fat yield; TAC = tibia ash content; TW = relative tibia weight; TAW = relative tibia ash weight; TL = tibia length; TD = tibia diam.; BBS = Bone breaking strength; PE = phosphorus excreted between 17 and 23 d; PI = phosphorus intake between 17 and 23 d; PE:PI = phosphorus excreted to phosphorus intake ratio; NE = nitrogen excreted between 17 and 23 d; NI = nitrogen intake between 17 and 23 d; NE:NI = nitrogen excreted to nitrogen intake ratio; ne = not estimated.
2Type P-D+ = phenotypic correlation estimated in the D+ birds; Type P-D- = phenotypic correlation estimated in the D- birds; Type G = genetic correlation.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Genetic correlations (±SE) between BW at 23 d (BW23), apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), feed conversion ratio (FCR), residual feed intake (RFI), and coefficient of digestive use of DM (CDU-DM) and temperature, body composition, and bone traits

 
Traits1 Correlations BW23 AMEn FCR RFI CDU-DM
FT G2 0.56 ± 0.24 0.00 ± 0.09 −0.11 ± ne 0.43 ± 0.20 0.06 ± 0.11
P-D+3 0.23 0.18 −0.14 0.05 0.25
P-D-4 0.16 0.11 0.02 0.01 0.10
DIT G −0.82 ± 0.09 0.18 ± 0.08 −0.08 ± ne −0.64 ± 0.14 0.23 ± ne
P-D+ −0.29 −0.05 −0.02 −0.16 −0.04
P-D- −0.16 0.03 −0.05 −0.15 0.06
BRY G 0.29 ± 0.20 0.05 ± 0.08 −0.11 ± 0.09 0.31 ± 0.16 0.05 ± 0.11
P-D+ 0.14 −0.08 −0.05 0.05 0.11
P-D- 0.27 0.03 0.03 0.07 −0.02
AFY G 0.73 ± 0.15 0.20 ± 0.08 −0.20 ± 0.10 0.03 ± ne 0.10 ± 0.11
P-D+ 0.24 0.04 0.15 0.24 0.09
P-D- 0.35 0.45 −0.25 −0.31 0.40
TAC G −0.22 ± 0.20 0.08 ± 0.08 0.07 ± 0.11 −0.07 ± 0.13 0.19 ± 0.10
P-D+ 0.08 0.02 0.02 −0.00 0.04
P-D- 0.22 0.08 −0.01 −0.02 0.10
TW G 0.69 ± 0.16 0.08 ± 0.08 −0.16 ± ne 0.47 ± 0.11 0.03 ± 0.09
P-D+ 0.15 −0.01 −0.09 0.01 0.10
P-D- 0.06 0.06 0.28 0.05 0.09
TAW G 0.38 ± 0.19 0.09 ± 0.08 −0.17 ± 0.10 0.34 ± 0.13 0.07 ± ne
P-D+ 0.18 0.02 −0.06 −0.01 0.13
P-D- 0.25 0.02 0.02 0.13 0.07
TL G −1.00 ± 0.01 0.15 ± 0.07 0.23 ± ne −0.52 ± ne −0.11 ± ne
P-D+ −0.94 0.10 −0.09 −0.49 −0.07
P-D- −0.95 −0.40 0.27 0.08 −0.31
TD G −0.95 ± 0.02 −0.09 ± 0.06 0.07 ± ne −0.37 ± 0.07 −0.05 ± ne
P-D+ −0.81 0.07 −0.05 −0.43 −0.09
P-D- −0.79 −0.27 0.10 0.05 −0.22
BBS G 0.93 ± 0.04 0.15 ± 0.07 −0.21 ± ne 0.54 ± 0.07 0.13 ± ne
P-D+ 0.75 −0.058 0.01 0.37 0.20
P-D- 0.77 0.26 −0.05 0.04 0.24
1FT = Basal metabolic temperature; DIT = diet-induced thermogenesis; BRY = breast yield; AFY = abdominal fat yield; TAC = tibia ash content; TW = relative tibia weight; TAW = relative tibia ash weight; TL = tibia length; TD = tibia diam.; BBS = Bone breaking strength; ne = not estimated.
2Genetic correlations.
3Phenotypic correlations in D+ line selected for high digestive efficiency.
4Phenotypic correlations in D- line selected for low digestive efficiency.