Figure 1.
Figure 1.

The effect of grazing heifers on ryegrass for 0, 99, or 219 d on subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression for transcriptional modulators (A) PPARγ, (B) bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2), and (C) SMAD family member 1 (SMAD1), (D) sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), (E) sonic hedgehog (SHH), (F) chicken ovalbumin protein transcription factor 1 (COUP-TF1), (G) chicken ovalbumin protein transcription factor 2 (COUP-TF2), (H) preadipocyte secreted factor-1 (PREF-1) and metabolic markers, (I) lipoprotein lipase (LPL), (J) stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), (K) fatty acid synthase (FAS), and (L) wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5a (WNT5a). Expression was determined by real-time PCR. Values were normalized to EIF3K expression. Data is expressed as fold change relative to baseline (d 0) and calculated according to Pfaffl (2010). Bars denoted by * and ** differ (P < 0.05), n = 6.

 


Figure 2.
Figure 2.

The effect of finishing heifers on either ryegrass or grain-based diets on subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression for (A) PPARγ, (B) bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2), and (C) SMAD family member 1 (SMAD1), (D) sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), (E) sonic hedgehog (SHH), (F) chicken ovalbumin protein transcription factor 1 (COUP-TF1), (G) chicken ovalbumin protein transcription factor 2 (COUP-TF2), (H) preadipocyte secreted factor-1 (PREF-1), (I) lipoprotein lipase (LPL), (J) stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), (K) fatty acid synthase (FAS), and (L) wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5a (WNT5a). Expression was determined by real-time PCR. Values were normalized to EIF3K expression; n = 6. Data is expressed as fold change relative to Group 3 and calculated according to Pfaffl, 2010. Bars denoted by * and ** differ (P < 0.05), n = 6.