View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Comparison of blood parameters at birth from piglets and umbilical veins of piglets that died before weaning vs. piglets that survived1

 
Piglet
Umbilical vein
Item Dead at weaning Alive at weaning Dead at weaning Alive at weaning
Glucose, mmol/L 2.7 ± 0.19 (45) 3.0 ± 0.09 (212) 2.7 ± 0.27 (18) 2.9 ± 0.12 (96)
Lactate, mmol/L 7.08 ± 0.46a (40) 5.58 ± 0.21c (189) 5.33 ± 0.63 (17) 4.60 ± 0.27 (93)
pO2, mmHg 28.0 ± 2.06 (46) 25.0 ± 0.96 (211) 36.1 ± 2.98 (19) 30.33 ± 1.24 (110)
pCO2, mmHg 60.1 ± 1.41 (46) 58.7 ± 0.66 (211) 47.3 ± 2.41 (19) 48.8 ± 1.00 (110)
pH 7.30 ± 0.01 (47) 7.33 ± 0.01 (213) 7.40 ± 0.02 (19) 7.41 ± 0.01 (107)
Base Excess, mmol/L 3 ± 0.9 (47) 5 ± 0.4 (212) 4 ± 1.2 (19) 6 ± 0.5 (107)
Hemoglobin, g/L 86 ± 3.0a (47) 98 ± 1.4d (215) 81 ± 4.6 (18) 90 ± 1.9 (107)
Hematocrit, L/L 0.25 ± 0.01a (47) 0.29 ± 0.00d (215) 0.24 ± 0.01 (18) 0.27 ± 0.01 (107)
Sodium, mmol/L 134.6 ± 0.52a (47) 135.9 ± 0.24b (217) 131.2 ± 1.76 (18) 133.5 ± 0.71 (109)
Potassium, mmol/L 4.7 ± 0.14 (47) 4.9 ± 0.06 (220) 4.4 ± 0.27 (19) 4.3 ± 0.11 (109)
Ionized calsium, mmol/L 1.56 ± 0.02 (46) 1.52 ± 0.01 (220) 1.69 ± 0.05 (19) 1.58 ± 0.02 (109)
a,bBetween columns for umbilical vein or piglet, means differ (P < 0.05).
a,cBetween columns for umbilical vein or piglet, means differ (P < 0.01).
a,dBetween columns for umbilical vein or piglet, means differ (P < 0.001).
1Values are mean ± SE (number).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Comparison of time until birth from expulsion of the first piglet, birth interval, birth weight, body mass index, placental area, and placental weight between piglets that died before weaning vs. piglets that survived1

 
Item Dead at weaning Alive at weaning P-value
Time until birth from expulsion of the first piglet, min 117 ± 13.6 (65) 138 ± 6.2 (317) 0.162
Birth interval, min 15 ± 3.0 (65) 17 ± 1.3 (317) 0.607
Birth weight, kg 1.16 ± 0.04 (63) 1.46 ± 0.02 (295) < 0.001
Body mass index 18.5 ± 0.35 (63) 19.7 ± 0.17 (285) 0.002
Placental area, cm2 1633 ± 98.9 (28) 2052 ± 44.5 (138) < 0.001
Placental weight, g 178 ± 12.6 (28) 209 ± 5.6 (140) 0.026
1Values are mean ± SE (number).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Associations between birth weight, body mass index, placental area, and placental weight and piglets that died before weaning vs. piglets that survived

 
Item1 n Parameter estimate2 SE P-value
Birth weight, kg
    Dead at weaning 63
    Alive at weaning 295 0.275 0.041 < 0.001
    Parity group 1
    Parity group 2 0.333 0.078 < 0.001
    Parity group 3 0.220 0.090 0.014
    Birth order group 1
    Birth order group 2 −0.084 0.036 0.019
    Birth order group 3 −0.007 0.037 0.843
    Male piglet
    Female piglet −0.103 0.031 0.001
    Live litter size −0.030 0.011 0.005
    Gestation length, days −0.058 0.034 0.087
    Constant 8.273 3.934 0.035
Body mass index
    Dead at weaning 63
    Alive at weaning 285 1.411 0.366 < 0.001
    Birth order group 1
    Birth order group 2 −0.616 0.321 0.055
    Birth order group 3 −0.342 0.334 0.320
    Male piglet
    Female piglet −0.714 0.279 0.011
    Constant 18.979 0.456 <0.001
Placental area, cm x cm
    Dead at weaning 28
    Alive at weaning 138 357.909 100.464 <0.001
    Live litter size −50.877 22.912 0.026
    Constant 2471.833 367.846 <0.001
Placental weight, g
    Dead at weaning 28
    Alive at weaning 140 28.741 12.033 0.017
    Birth order group 1
    Birth order group 2 23.376 9.560 0.014
    Birth order group 3 32.281 10.852 0.003
    Live litter size −5.572 3.111 0.073
    Constant 247.709 49.671 <0.001
1Piglets are grouped into 3 categories according to birth order groups: first, middle, or last third of each litter.
2Parameter estimate = slope of multivariable regression for explanatory variables.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Comparison of blood variables at d 1 from piglets that died before weaning vs. piglets that survived1

 
Piglet
Item Dead at weaning Alive at weaning
Total protein, g/L 48 ± 1.9a (26) 52 ± 0.6b (256)
IgG, g/L 16.5 ± 1.51a (26) 20.6 ± 0.48c (256)
Albumin, g/L 5.3 ± 0.29a (26) 6.2 ± 0.09c (256)
α1 globulin, g/L 9.4 ± 0.20a (26) 8.9 ± 0.06b (256)
α2 globulin, g/L 2.0 ± 0.08a (26) 2.2 ± 0.03b (256)
β1 globulin, g/L 5.6 ± 0.26 (26) 6.0 ± 0.08 (248)
β2 globulin, g/L 8.1 ± 0.48a (26) 9.2 ± 0.15b (256)
γ globulin, g/L 17.3 ± 1.36 (26) 19.5 ± 0.43 (255)
a,bBetween columns, means differ (P < 0.05).
a,cBetween columns, means differ (P < 0.01).
1Values are mean ± SE (number).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Univariate associations between placental area and placental weight, and recorded blood variables in the piglet at d 11

 
Item Placental area Placental weight
Total protein, g/L 134, 0.967 136, 0.330
IgG, g/L 134, 0.610 136, 0.427
Albumin, g/L 134, 0.032 136, 0.038
α1 globulin, g/L 134, 0.132 136, 0.037
α2 globulin, g/L 134, 0.799 136, 0.530
β1 globulin, g/L 131, 0.488 133. 0.019
β2 globulin, g/L 134, 0.334 136, 0.047
γ globulin, g/L 133, 0.776 135, 0.260
1Values are number of animals and P-value.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Associations between piglet blood concentration of albumin at d 1 and placental area

 
Item1 n Parameter estimate2 SE P-value
Albumin, g/L
    Placental area, cm2 134 0.001 0.000 < 0.001
    Birth order group 1
    Birth order group 2 −0.571 0.207 0.006
    Birth order group 3 −0.395 0.233 0.090
    Constant 4.889 0.438 < 0.001
1Piglets were grouped into 3 categories according to birth order: first, middle, or last third of each litter.
2Parameter estimate = slope of multivariable regression for explanatory variables.