View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) concentrations in piglets on postnatal d 1 and 27. Piglets were born to gilts fed diets with low, adequate, or high protein levels throughout gestation1

 
Diet2
P-value
Item Age, d n/diet LP AP HP Diet Age Sex Diet × Age Diet × Sex
Plasma adrenaline, nmol/L 1 35 to 42 4.66 ± 0.48 5.23 ± 0.51 4.56 ± 0.43 0.729 < 0.001 0.509 0.203 0.704
27 16 to 18 2.61 ± 0.72 2.66 ± 0.73 3.71 ± 0.61
Plasma noradrenaline, nmol/L 1 34 to 42 10.92 ± 1.06 11.90 ± 1.11 10.76 ± 0.91 0.465 < 0.001 0.270 0.368 0.929
27 16 to 18 4.42 ± 1.57 6.90 ± 1.58 7.43 ± 1.31
Plasma cortisol, nmol/L 1 17 to 23 349 ± 52 393 ± 74 337 ± 48 0.757 < 0.001 0.363 0.617 0.870
27 10 to 11 113 ± 76 67 ± 86 28 ± 62
Plasma CBG, pmol/L 1 21 to 26 40.5 ± 4.1 38.2 ± 4.4 44.7 ± 3.6 0.490 0.004 0.111 0.985 0.947
27 10 to 11 28.2 ± 7.2 27.6 ± 6.3 33.7 ± 5.4
1Values are least squares means ± SE.
2Diets: LP = low protein (6.5%); AP = adequate protein (12.1%); HP = high protein (30%).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Concentrations of monoamines and metabolites in the locus coeruleus of piglets at 1 and 27 d of age, born to sows fed diets with low, adequate or high protein levels throughout gestation1

 
Diet2
P-value
Item3 Age, d n/diet LP AP HP Diet Age Sex Diet × Age Diet × Sex
NA, pmol/mg 1 40 to 48 6.02 ± 0.43 6.27 ± 0.47 5.89 ± 0.55 0.846 < 0.001 0.752 0.952 0.026
27 20 to 24 7.36 ± 0.52 7.44 ± 0.58 7.03 ± 0.60
MHPG, pmol/mg 1 13 to 22 0.46 ± 0.10 0.74 ± 0.08 0.53 ± 0.09 0.187 < 0.001 0.228 0.743 0.083
27 7 to 8 0.30 ± 0.12 0.51 ± 0.10 0.40 ± 0.12
DA, pmol/mg 1 40 to 48 1.01 ± 0.08 1.06 ± 0.10 1.08 ± 0.10A 0.286 0.123 0.530 0.028 0.619
27 20 to 24 0.95 ± 0.11 1.17 ± 0.12 0.72 ± 0.12B
DOPAC, pmol/mg 1 32 to 35 1.63 ± 0.17 1.65 ± 0.17 1.68 ± 0.19 0.803 0.009 0.004 0.429 0.527
27 17 to 18 1.37 ± 0.21 1.48 ± 0.23 1.14 ± 0.20
HVA, pmol/mg 1 40 to 48 2.63 ± 0.19 2.58 ± 0.22 2.90 ± 0.24 0.741 < 0.001 0.014 0.270 0.374
27 20 to 24 1.87 ± 0.25 2.28 ± 0.28 1.97 ± 0.27
5-HT, pmol/mg 1 40 to 48 4.99 ± 0.29 5.18 ± 0.31 5.58 ± 0.37 0.565 0.002 0.360 0.598 0.144
27 20 to 24 4.68 ± 0.33 4.43 ± 0.37 4.92 ± 0.40
5-HIAA, pmol/mg 1 40 to 48 7.22 ± 0.41 7.21 ± 0.45 7.39 ± 0.52 0.832 < 0.001 0.326 0.826 0.541
27 20 to 24 3.18 ± 0.49 2.90 ± 0.55 3.52 ± 0.57
A,BWithin diet HP: only HP offspring showed age-dependent differences (P < 0.05) according to Tukey-Kramer test.
1Values are least squares means ± SE.
2Diets: LP = low protein (6.5%); AP = adequate protein (12.1%); HP = high protein (30%).
3NA = noradrenaline; MHPG = 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol; DA = dopamine; DOPAC = 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; HVA = homovanillic acid; 5-HT = 5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HIAA = 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Relative adrenal weight, areas, and cell density of adrenal cortex and medulla of piglets and juvenile pigs at 1, 27, and 81 d of age, born to sows fed diets with low, adequate, or high protein levels throughout gestation1

 
Diet2
P-value
Item Age, d n/diet LP AP HP Diet Age Sex Diet × Age Diet × Sex
Relative adrenal weight, mg/kg BW 1 35 to 43 227 ± 6 216 ± 7 217 ± 6 0.954 < 0.001 0.137 0.660 0.746
27 18 to 21 126 ± 7 125 ± 8 128 ± 8
81 16 to 19 78 ± 8 83 ± 9 81 ± 8
Total adrenal area, mm2 1 29 to 35 9.0 ± 0.9 8.9 ± 1.0 8.0 ± 0.9 0.082 < 0.001 0.030 0.053 0.106
27 18 to 21 19.3 ± 1.0 18.2 ± 1.1 17.7 ± 1.1
81 18 to 21 34.6 ± 1.0a 29.8 ± 1.2b 30.3 ± 1.1a,b
Cortex area, mm2 1 29 to 35 6.4 ± 0.7 6.3 ± 0.7 5.8 ± 0.7 0.144 < 0.001 0.037 0.275 0.064
27 18 to 21 14.7 ± 0.8 13.3 ± 0.8 13.7 ± 0.8
81 18 to 21 25.7 ± 0.8 22.8 ± 0.9 23.5 ± 0.8
Medulla area, mm2 1 29 to 35 2.57 ± 0.38 2.58 ± 0.42 2.18 ± 0.40 0.152 < 0.001 0.131 0.007 0.476
27 18 to 21 4.61 ± 0.43 4.84 ± 0.45 4.10 ± 0.45
81 18 to 21 8.88 ± 0.43a 6.96 ± 0.48a,b 6.89 ± 0.45b
Cell density cortex, number of cells/mm2 1 29 to 35 3874 ± 102 3988 ± 114 3851 ± 109 0.219 < 0.001 0.806 0.925 0.290
27 18 to 21 3740 ± 117 3976 ± 126 3662 ± 121
81 18 to 21 3387 ± 119 3571 ± 134 3370 ± 123
Cell density medulla, number of cells/mm2 1 29 to 35 6291 ± 129 6734 ± 142 6736 ± 138 0.090 < 0.001 0.440 0.470 0.029
27 18 to 21 5423 ± 146 5501 ± 154 5762 ± 152
81 18 to 21 4657 ± 148 4975 ± 162 4945 ± 154
a,bWithin a row: values not sharing a common superscript differ significantly (P < 0.05) according to Tukey-Kramer test.
1Values are least squares means ± SE.
2Diets: LP = low protein (6.5%); AP = adequate protein (12.1%); HP = high protein (30%).