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Composition of lactation and breeding/gestation diets (% expressed on an as-fed basis)

 
Item Lactation diet Breeding/gestation diet
Ingredient
    Corn 64.6 69.4
    Soybean meal (48%) 28.3 15.0
    Soy hulls 10.0
    Choice white grease 2.5 1.0
    Dicalcium phosphate 2.4 2.3
    Limestone 0.8 1.0
    Salt 0.5 0.5
    Lysine 0.1
    Vitamin premixes2 0.9 0.9
Calculated nutrient composition1
    ME, kcal/kg 3,373 3,150
    NE, kcal/kg 2,460 2,310
    CP, % 18.9 14.1
    Digestible lysine,% 0.98 0.59
    Calcium, % 0.93 0.99
    Phosphorus, % 0.82 0.74
1NRC (1998).
2Supplied per kilogram of complete diet: vitamin A, 11,000 IU; vitamin D3, 1,100 IU; vitamin E, 44 IU; vitamin B12, 0.03 mg; vitamin K as menadione sodium bisulfite complex, 4.0 mg; riboflavin, 8.25 mg; D-pantothenic acid as D-calcium pantothenate, 28.1 mg; niacin, 33.0 mg; choline as choline chloride, 550 mg; folic acid, 1.65 mg; biotin, 0.22 mg; iron as iron sulfate, 165 mg; zinc as zinc sulfate, 165 mg; manganese as manganese sulfate, 33 mg; copper as copper sulfate, 16.5 mg; iodine as ethylenediamine dihydroiodide, 0.3 mg; selenium as sodium selenite, 0.3 mg; zinc as zinc methionine, 100 mg



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Farrowing and litter data for sows that were treated with 1 of 4 temperature treatment sequences during a production cycle

 
Treatment1
Item TN-TN-TN TN-HS-TN HS-TN-HS HS-HS-HS P2
n 15 14 14 15
Trial day at farrowing 23.5 ± 0.4 24.0 ± 0.4 23.7 ± 0.4 23.0 ± 0.4 NS
Gestation length,3 d 114.7 ± 0.3 114.9 ± 0.3 114.2 ± 0.3 114.1 ± 0.3 NS
Induction protocol
    PGF only, n 2 1 0 6 <0.02
    PGF + oxytocin,4 n 11 10 12 4 <0.01
Litters at birth
    Total born, n 11.5 ± 0.7 11.7 ± 0.7 11.6 ± 0.7 11.8 ± 0.7 NS
    Born alive, n 10.9 ± 0.6 10.8 ± 0.7 11.3 ± 0.7 11.0 ± 0.6 NS
    Stillborn, n 0.40 ± 0.20 0.47 ± 0.21 0.13 ± 0.21 0.60 ± 0.20 NS
    Mummies, n 0.27 ± 0.16 0.50 ± 0.16 0.20 ± 0.16 0.20 ± 0.16 NS
Piglets weaned 10.3 ± 0.4 10.6 ± 0.4 10.3 ± 0.4 10.2 ± 0.6 NS
Piglet BW
    BW at d 2, kg 1.47 ± 0.13 1.40 ± 0.11 1.40 ± 0.11 1.57 ± 0.11 NS
    BW at 10 d, kg 3.45 ± 0.14 3.13 ± 0.14 3.22 ± 0.12 3.13 ± 0.12 NS
    BW at weaning,5 kg 6.37 ± 0.25 5.73 ± 0.24 6.05 ± 0.21 5.80 ± 0.21 NS
Litter BW gain, kg/d 2.36 ± 0.16 2.24 ± 0.15 2.27 ± 0.13 2.16 ± 0.14 NS
ME intake,6 Mcal/d 10.9 ± 0.5 9.6 ± 0.5 12.3 ± 0.5 9.5 ± 0.4 <0.001
ME milk,7 Mcal/d 9.3 ± 0.7 9.2 ± 0.7 9.8 ± 0.7 9.1 ± 0.7 NS
1The treatments are denoted as TN-TN-TN, TN-HS-TN, HS-TN-HS, and HS-HS-HS, where the series of abbreviations represent the thermoneutral environmental temperature (TN; 18°C to 20°C) or heat stress (HS; 24°C to 30°C) that the sow experienced in gestation-farrowing-breeding.
2P-value for the main effect of treatment. NS = not significant (P > 0.10).
3Contrast 1 (TN-TN-TN and TN-HS-TN vs. HS-TN-HS and HS-HS-HS; sows in a TN breeding/gestation room vs. sows in a HS breeding/gestation room), P < 0.056.
4Contrast 2 (TN-TN-TN and HS-TN-HS vs. TN-HS-TN and HS-HS-HS; sows in a TN farrowing room vs. sows in a HS farrowing room), P < 0.014.
5Contrast 2, P < 0.05.
6Least squares mean ± SEM for ME intake for d 0 to 20 of lactation. Contrast 2, P < 0.001.
7Least squares mean ± SEM for ME of secreted milk for d 0 to 20 of lactation.



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Breeding and subsequent farrowing data for sows that were treated with 1 of 4 temperature treatment sequences during a production cycle

 
Treatment1
Item TN-TN-TN TN-HS-TN HS-TN-HS HS-HS-HS P2
n3 14 13 14 15
Estrus and inseminated, n (%) 10 (71) 12 (92) 12 (86) 14 (93) NS
Anovulatory, n (%) 2 (14) 1 (8) 0 (0) 0 (0) NS
Silent ovulation, n (%) 2 (14) 0 (0) 2 (14) 1 (7) NS
Weaning to estrus, d 4.7 ± 0.3 4.8 ± 0.3 4.8 ± 0.3 4.7 ± 0.2 NS
Length of estrus, d 2.3 ± 0.2 2.2 ± 0.2 2.1 ± 0.2 2.3 ± 0.2 NS
Second farrowing
    n4 9 12 11 14
    Number farrowing (%) 8 (89) 10 (83) 9 (82) 11 (79) NS
    Total born, n 10.4 ± 0.7 11.5 ± 0.6 10.7 ± 0.7 10.6 ± 0.6 NS
    Born alive, n 9.8 ± 0.6 10.5 ± 0.5 10.3 ± 0.5 10.2 ± 0.5 NS
    Stillborn, n 0.63 ± 0.30 1.00 ± 0.27 0.33 ± 0.28 0.45 ± 0.26 NS
1The treatments are denoted as TN-TN-TN, TN-HS-TN, HS-TN-HS, and HS-HS-HS, where the series of abbreviations represent the thermoneutral environmental temperature (TN; 18°C) to 20°C) or heat stress (HS; 24°C) to 30°C) that the sow experienced in gestation-farrowing-breeding.
2P-value for the main effect of treatment. NS = not significant (P > 0.10).
3Excludes 1 TN-TN-TN sow that died in farrowing and 1 TN-HS-TN sow that was lame (euthanized at breeding).
4Excludes 1 HS-TN-HS sow that died on the farm of the producer and 1 TN-TN-TN sows that had a rectal tear (euthanized at breeding).