View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Composition and nutrient analysis of Phase 1 diets (7 to 11 kg BW, as-fed basis)

 
CON1
DDGS2
Item No-E3 1X-E3 10X-E3 No-E 1X-E 10X-E
Ingredient, %
    Corn 48.67 48.64 48.37 22.92 22.89 22.62
    Soybean meal (46.5% CP) 18.40 18.40 18.40 14.50 14.50 14.50
    DDGS 30.00 30.00 30.00
    Fish meal, menhaden 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
    Whey powder 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
    Limestone 0.78 0.78 0.78 1.28 1.28 1.28
    Dicalcium phosphate 0.83 0.83 0.83
    Salt 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
    dl-Met 0.02 0.02 0.02
    Vitamin/trace mineral premix4 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
    Antibiotic (Mecadox) 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
    Zinc oxide 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
    Vitamin E5 0.03 0.30 0.03 0.30
Calculated nutrient composition
    ME,6 kcal/kg 3,283 3,282 3,273 3,297 3,295 3,286
    NE,7 kcal/kg 2,214 2,213 2,207 2,138 2,137 2,131
    CP, % 21.3 21.3 21.2 25.3 25.3 25.3
    Lys, % 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.41 1.41 1.41
    Met + Cys, % 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.91 0.91 0.91
    Thr, % 0.89 0.89 0.89 1.02 1.02 1.02
    Trp, % 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.26
    SID Lys,8 % 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20
    SID Met + Cys, % 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.77 0.77 0.77
    SID Thr, % 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.82 0.82 0.82
    SID Trp, % 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22
    Ca, % 1.22 1.22 1.22 1.22 1.22 1.22
    P, % 0.86 0.86 0.86 0.90 0.90 0.90
    Available P, % 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62
    α-Tocopherol, IU/kg 0.00 13.2 132 0.00 13.2 132
Analyzed nutrient composition
    CP, % 20.6 20.1 21.9 24.7 25.0 24.6
    Crude fat,9 % 2.54 3.91
    Crude fiber,9 % 1.5 3.0
    Lys, % 1.31 1.33 1.43 1.34 1.40 1.36
    Met, % 0.38 0.37 0.41 0.44 0.48 0.47
    Thr, % 0.83 0.82 0.88 0.96 1.00 0.99
    Trp, % 0.22 0.22 0.25 0.24 0.25 0.25
    Ca,9 % 1.72 1.40
    P,9 % 0.99 0.89
    α-Tocopherol, IU/kg <10 13 151 <10 14 127
1CON = corn–soybean meal based control diet.
2DDGS = dried distillers grains with solubles; 30% inclusion of DDGS.
3No-E = no supplemental vitamin E; 1X-E = NRC (1998) level of vitamin E supplied as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, which is 13.2 IU/kg for BW of 9 kg; 10X-E = 10x NRC (1998) level of vitamin E supplied as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, which is 132 IU/kg for BW of 9 kg.
4Vitamin–trace mineral premix (without vitamin E) provided these nutrients per kilogram of diet: 11,023 IU of vitamin A as retinyl acetate, 2,756 IU of vitamin D3 as cholecalciferol, 4.41 mg of vitamin K as menadione dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite, 9.92 mg of riboflavin, 55.11 mg of niacin, 33.07 mg of pantothenic acid as D-calcium pantothenate, 496.03 mg of choline as choline chloride, 0.06 mg of vitamin B12, 2.20 mg of pyridoxine, 1.65 mg of folic acid, 1.10 mg of thiamine, 0.22 mg of biotin, 2.20 mg of I as ethylenediamine dihydroiodide, 0.30 mg of Se as sodium selenite, 90.39 mg of Zn as zinc oxide (SQM; Actifeed, Saint Malo, France), 55.11 mg of Fe as ferrous sulfate (SQM; Actifeed), 5.51 mg of Cu as copper sulfate (SQM; Actifeed), and 17.64 mg of Mn as manganese oxide (SQM; Actifeed).
5Vitamin E was supplied as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate with concentration of 44,092 IU/kg.
6ME values were calculated using NRC (1998) values for corn and soybean meal and 3,416 kcal/kg for DDGS, which was the average value of 10 DDGS samples analyzed by Pedersen et al. (2007).
7NE values were calculated using NRC (1998) values for corn, soybean meal, and DDGS.
8SID = standardized ileal digestible.
9Nutrient concentrations were only analyzed in No-E/CON and No-E/DDGS treatments because values were expected to be similar to those in corresponding 1X-E and 10X-E treatments.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Composition and nutrient analysis of Phase 2 diets (11 to 25 kg BW, as-fed basis)

 
CON1
DDGS2
Item No-E3 1X-E3 10X-E3 No-E 1X-E 10X-E
Ingredient, %
    Corn 65.97 65.94 65.72 44.13 44.10 43.88
    Soybean meal (46.5% CP) 31.00 31.00 31.00 23.00 23.00 23.00
    DDGS 30.00 30.00 30.00
    Limestone 0.78 0.78 0.78 1.30 1.30 1.30
    Dicalcium phosphate 1.33 1.33 1.33 0.52 0.52 0.52
    Salt 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35
    l-Lys HCl 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.20 0.20 0.20
    Vitamin/trace mineral premix4 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
    Vitamin E5 0.025 0.25 0.025 0.25
Calculated nutrient composition
    ME,6 kcal/kg 3,293 3,292 3,284 3,303 3,302 3,294
    NE,7 kcal/kg 2,206 2,205 2,200 2,141 2,140 2,135
    CP, % 19.9 19.9 19.9 22.5 22.5 22.5
    Lys, % 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.22 1.22 1.22
    Met + Cys, % 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.79 0.79 0.79
    Thr, % 0.76 0.76 0.76 0.84 0.84 0.83
    Trp, % 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.23
    SID Lys,8 % 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
    SID Met + Cys, % 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.65 0.65 0.65
    SID Thr, % 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.66 0.66 0.66
    SID Trp, % 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.19 0.19 0.19
    Ca, % 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70
    P, % 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.66 0.66 0.66
    Available P, % 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32
    α-Tocopherol, IU/kg 0.00 11.0 110 0.00 11.0 110
Analyzed nutrient composition
    CP, % 19.3 19.0 18.6 22.2 21.5 20.7
    Crude fat,9 % 2.68 3.70
    Crude fiber,9 % 2.3 3.6
    Lys, % 1.21 1.25 1.07 1.23 1.16 1.20
    Met, % 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.37 0.34 0.35
    Thr, % 0.75 0.76 0.67 0.87 0.83 0.82
    Trp, % 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.22 0.22 0.21
    Ca,9 % 0.77 0.98
    P,9 % 0.64 0.66
    α-Tocopherol, IU/kg <10 14 124 <10 13 118
1CON = corn–soybean meal based control diet.
2DDGS = dried distillers grains with solubles; 30% inclusion of DDGS.
3No-E = no supplemental vitamin E; 1X-E = NRC (1998) level of vitamin E supplied as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, which is 11.0 IU/kg for BW of 18 kg; 10X-E = 10x NRC (1998) level of vitamin E supplied as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, which is 110 IU/kg for BW of 18 kg.
4Vitamin–trace mineral premix (without vitamin E) provided these nutrients per kilogram of diet: 11,023 IU of vitamin A as retinyl acetate, 2756 IU of vitamin D3 as cholecalciferol, 4.41 mg of vitamin K as menadione dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite, 9.92 mg of riboflavin, 55.11 mg of niacin, 33.07 mg of pantothenic acid as D-calcium pantothenate, 496.03 mg of choline as choline chloride, 0.06 mg of vitamin B12, 2.20 mg of pyridoxine, 1.65 mg of folic acid, 1.10 mg of thiamine, 0.22 mg of biotin, 2.20 mg of I as ethylenediamine dihydroiodide, 0.30 mg of Se as sodium selenite, 90.39 mg of Zn as zinc oxide (SQM; Actifeed, Saint Malo, France), 55.11 mg of Fe as ferrous sulfate (SQM; Actifeed), 5.51 mg of Cu as copper sulfate (SQM; Actifeed), and 17.64 mg of Mn as manganese oxide (SQM; Actifeed).
5Vitamin E was supplied as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate with concentration of 44,092 IU/kg.
6ME values were calculated using NRC (1998) values for corn and soybean meal and 3,416 kcal/kg for DDGS, which was the average value of 10 DDGS samples analyzed by Pedersen et al. (2007).
7NE values were calculated using NRC (1998) values for corn, soybean meal, and DDGS. 8SID = standardized ileal digestible.
9Nutrient concentrations were only analyzed in No-E/CON and No-E/DDGS treatments because values were expected to be similar to those in corresponding 1X-E and 10X-E treatments.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Composition and nutrient analysis of Phase 3 diets (25 to 50 kg BW, as-fed basis)

 
CON1
DDGS2
Item No-E3 1X-E3 10X-E3 No-E 1X-E 10X-E
Ingredient, %
    Corn 71.43 71.40 71.18 51.74 51.71 51.49
    Soybean meal (46.5% CP) 26.00 26.00 26.00 15.75 15.75 15.75
    DDGS 30.00 30.00 30.00
    Limestone 0.76 0.76 0.76 1.28 1.28 1.28
    Dicalcium phosphate 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.08 0.08 0.08
    Salt 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35
    l-Lys HCl 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.28 0.28 0.28
    l-Trp 0.02 0.02 0.02
    Vitamin/trace mineral premix4 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
    Vitamin E5 0.025 0.25 0.025 0.250
Calculated nutrient composition
    ME,6 kcal/kg 3,312 3,312 3,304 3,321 3,320 3,312
    NE,7 kcal/kg 2,236 2,235 2,230 2,177 2,176 2,171
    CP, % 18.1 18.1 18.1 19.8 19.8 19.8
    Lys, % 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.08 1.08 1.08
    Met + Cys, % 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.71 0.71 0.71
    Thr, % 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.72 0.72 0.72
    Trp, % 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.20
    SID Lys,8 % 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89
    SID Met + Cys, % 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.59 0.59 0.59
    SID Thr, % 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.57
    SID Trp, % 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.17
    Ca, % 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.58
    P, % 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.56 0.56 0.55
    Available P, % 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23
    α-Tocopherol, IU/kg 0.00 11.0 110 0.00 11.0 110
Analyzed nutrient composition
    CP, % 17.8 17.2 17.0 18.3 18.3 17.8
    Crude fat,9 % 2.23 3.71
    Crude fiber,9 % 2.6 3.6
    Lys, % 1.12 1.10 1.04 1.07 0.99 1.03
    Met, % 0.26 0.25 0.24 0.32 0.31 0.30
    Thr, % 0.70 0.69 0.67 0.73 0.68 0.67
    Trp, % 0.20 0.23 0.23 0.21 0.20 0.20
    Ca,9 % 0.76 0.76
    P,9 % 0.62 0.56
    α-Tocopherol, IU/kg <10 13 117 <10 14 105
1CON = corn–soybean meal based control diet.
2DDGS = dried distillers grains with solubles; 30% inclusion of DDGS.
3No-E = no supplemental vitamin E; 1X-E = NRC (1998) level of vitamin E supplied as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, which is 11.0 IU/kg for BW of 37 kg; 10X-E = 10x NRC (1998) level of vitamin E supplied as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, which is 110 IU/kg for BW of 37 kg.
4Vitamin–trace mineral premix (without vitamin E) provided these nutrients per kilogram of diet: 11,023 IU of vitamin A as retinyl acetate, 2,756 IU of vitamin D3 as cholecalciferol, 4.41 mg of vitamin K as menadione dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite, 9.92 mg of riboflavin, 55.11 mg of niacin, 33.07 mg of pantothenic acid as D-calcium pantothenate, 496.03 mg of choline as choline chloride, 0.06 mg of vitamin B12, 2.20 mg of pyridoxine, 1.65 mg of folic acid, 1.10 mg of thiamine, 0.22 mg of biotin, 2.20 mg of I as ethylenediamine dihydroiodide, 0.30 mg of Se as sodium selenite, 90.39 mg of Zn as zinc oxide (SQM; Actifeed, Saint Malo, France), 55.11 mg of Fe as ferrous sulfate (SQM; Actifeed), 5.51 mg of Cu as copper sulfate (SQM; Actifeed), and 17.64 mg of Mn as manganese oxide (SQM; Actifeed).
5Vitamin E was supplied as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate with concentration of 44,092 IU/kg.
6ME values were calculated using NRC (1998) values for corn and soybean meal and 3,416 kcal/kg for DDGS, which was the average value of 10 DDGS samples analyzed by Pedersen et al. (2007).
7NE values were calculated using NRC (1998) values for corn, soybean meal, and DDGS.
8SID = standardized ileal digestible.
9Nutrient concentrations were only analyzed in No-E/CON and No-E/DDGS treatments because values were expected to be similar to those in corresponding 1X-E and 10X-E treatments.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Analyzed nutrient composition of dried distillers grains with solubles source used (as-fed basis)

 
Item %
DM 91.3
CP 26.6
Crude fat 9.7
Crude fiber 7.7
ADF 12.5
NDF 25.0
Ash 5.3
P 0.97
Ca 0.03
S 0.95
Indispensable AA
    Arg 1.19
    His 0.69
    Ile 1.00
    Leu 2.86
    Lys 0.85
    Met 0.50
    Phe 1.08
    Thr 0.94
    Trp 0.17
    Val 1.34
Dispensable AA
    Ala 1.68
    Asp 1.57
    Cys 0.51
    Glu 3.17
    Gly 1.01
    Pro 1.77
    Ser 1.00
    Tyr 0.93



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Growth performance of pigs fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and increasing levels of vitamin E (Vit E)1

 
CON2
DDGS3
P-value4
Item No-E5 1X-E5 10X-E5 No-E 1X-E 10X-E SE Vit E DDGS
Phase 1
    ADG, kg 0.18 0.21 0.25 0.18 0.17 0.19 0.02 0.40 0.14
    ADFI, kg 0.27 0.30 0.33 0.28 0.24 0.29 0.03 0.36 0.17
    G:F, kg/kg 0.66 0.71 0.74 0.64 0.72 0.65 0.06 0.52 0.51
Phase 2
    ADG, kg 0.59 0.62 0.63 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.03 0.83 0.28
    ADFI, kg 1.02 1.13 1.19 1.13 1.08 1.12 0.05 0.57 0.93
    G:F, kg/kg 0.58 0.55 0.53 0.52 0.55 0.52 0.03 0.68 0.40
Phase 3
    ADG, kg 0.88 0.83 0.86 0.81 0.83 0.80 0.07 0.98 0.44
    ADFI, kg 1.80 1.80 1.94 1.74 1.82 1.91 0.08 0.49 0.82
    G:F, kg/kg 0.49 0.45 0.44 0.46 0.45 0.42 0.02 0.07 0.37
Overall6
    Initial BW, kg 6.9 6.9 6.9 7.0 6.9 7.0 0.4 0.69 1.00
    Final BW, kg 42.0 41.3 43.8 39.9 39.9 40.0 1.5 0.67 0.05
    ADG, kg 0.56 0.57 0.59 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.03 0.83 0.12
    ADFI, kg 0.99 1.10 1.16 1.07 1.05 1.11 0.05 0.16 0.89
    G:F, kg/kg 0.57 0.52 0.51 0.50 0.51 0.49 0.02 0.26 0.14
1Values are least square means of 4 replicate pens per dietary treatment.
2CON = corn–soybean based control diet.
330% inclusion of DDGS.
4No interactions between DDGS and vitamin E were observed for any of the growth performance responses in this table (P > 0.34).
5No-E = no supplemental of vitamin E; 1X-E = NRC (1998) level of vitamin E; 10X-E = 10x NRC (1998) level of vitamin E. Vitamin E was supplied as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate.
6Initial BW = at weaning; final BW = 8 wk after weaning.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Influence of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and vitamin E (Vit E) supplementation on thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and α-tocopherol concentration in serum1

 
CON2
DDGS3
P-value
Item No-E4 1X-E4 10X-E4 No-E 1X-E 10X-E SE Vit E DDGS Vit E × DDGS
TBARS, μM 3.69 3.54 3.68 3.72 3.63 3.56 0.08 0.23 0.95 0.27
α-Tocopherol, μg/mL 0.42 0.95 3.32 1.60 1.61 3.54 0.11 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
1Values are least square means of 9 replicate pigs per dietary treatment.
2CON = corn–soybean based control diet.
330% inclusion of DDGS.
4No-E = no supplemental of vitamin E; 1X-E = NRC (1998) level of vitamin E; 10X-E = 10x NRC (1998) level of vitamin E. Vitamin E was supplied as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Sulfur-containing antioxidants in pigs fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and increasing levels of vitamin E (Vit E)1

 
CON2
DDGS3
P-value
Item No-E4 1X-E4 10X-E4 No-E 1X-E 10X-E SE Vit E DDGS Vit E × DDGS
Serum sulfur AA, μM
    Met 53.7 41.1 42.4 73.6 77.1 61.7 4.8 0.12 <0.001 0.16
    Taurine 138.4 135.9 156.3 194.3 206.8 190.2 19.4 0.93 0.002 0.63
    Liver glutathione, nmol/g 35.3 44.6 45.7 50.2 56.4 62.3 4.9 0.01 <0.001 0.78
    Serum GPx activity,5 units/mL 0.95 0.92 1.13 1.15 1.30 1.30 0.06 0.03 <0.001 0.17
1Values are least square means of nine replicate pigs per dietary treatment.
2CON = corn–soybean meal based control diet.
330% inclusion of DDGS.
4No-E = no supplemental of vitamin E; 1X-E = NRC (1998) level of vitamin E; 10X-E = 10x NRC (1998) level of vitamin E. Vitamin E was supplied as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate.
5GPx = glutathione peroxidase, and 1 unit of activity equals 1 μmol reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidized per min/mL serum.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 8.

Sulfur content, daily S balance, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in experimental diets (as-fed basis)

 
CON1
DDGS2
P-value
Item No-E3 1X-E3 10X-E3 No-E 1X-E 10X-E SE Vit E4 DDGS Vit E × DDGS
Dietary S content5
    Organic S, % 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.15 0.15 0.14
    Inorganic S, % 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.22 0.23 0.26
    Total S, % 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.37 0.38 0.40
Daily S balance6
    No. of pigs 8 9 7 8 9 9
    S intake, g 3.13 2.90 3.19 5.57 5.64 5.95 0.21 0.32 <0.001 0.69
    S in feces, g 0.50 0.46 0.48 0.70 0.79 0.76 0.06 0.79 <0.001 0.31
    S in urine, g 0.65 0.40 0.09 1.97 1.95 1.88 0.26 0.14 <0.001 0.21
    S absorbed, g 2.63 2.44 2.70 4.86 4.84 5.19 0.18 0.23 <0.001 0.78
    S retained, g 1.90 1.89 2.42 2.78 2.84 3.20 0.28 0.20 0.001 0.95
    ATTD S, % 84.4 84.0 85.5 87.3 85.9 87.3 0.85 0.12 <0.001 0.66
1CON = corn–soybean meal based control diet.
2DDGS = dried distillers grains with solubles; 30% inclusion of DDGS.
3No-E = no supplemental of vitamin E; 1X-E = NRC (1998) level of vitamin E; 10X-E = 10x NRC (1998) level of vitamin E. Vitamin E was supplied as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate.
4Vit E = vitamin E.
5Values are from Phase 3 experimental diets.
6Values are least square means.