View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Ingredient composition and nutrient content of experimental diets1

 
Item Adaptation Grower flaxseed Grower control Finisher 1 control Finisher 2 flaxseed Finisher 2 control
Ingredient composition, % (as-fed)
    Corn 39.90 34.55 40.40 52.20 51.98 57.73
    Wheat 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
    Soybean meal 35.00 31.50 33.5 22.00 18.00 18.00
    Ground flaxseed 10.00 7.00
    Fat2 1.00
    Beef tallow 2.00 2.00 1.00
    l-Lys HCl 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.13 0.17
    dl-Met 0.12 0.08 0.08 0.04 0.03
    l-Thr 0.13 0.10 0.10 0.07 0.01 0.04
    l-Trp 0.02
    Lincomycin 443 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
    Limestone 1.15 1.15 1.12 1.12 1.06 1.06
    Dicalcium phosphate 1.30 1.20 1.38 1.15 0.60 0.73
    Salt 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
    Vitamin and mineral mix4 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
    Titanium dioxide 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
    Vitamin E5 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
Calculated nutrient content6
    DE, MJ/kg 14.6 14.6 14.7 14.7 14.5 14.5
    CP, % 22.7 22.7 21.9 17.5 16.9 16.0
    Crude fat, % 2.93 6.11 4.58 5.14 4.98 4.71
    Total Lys, % 1.40 1.32 1.32 1.00 0.88 0.87
    Digestible Lys,4 % 1.21 1.17 1.17 0.89 0.77 0.77
    Digestible Met + Cys, % 0.76 0.73 0.71 0.56 0.52 0.52
    Digestible Thr, % 0.85 0.82 0.81 0.62 0.53 0.54
    Digestible Trp, % 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.17 0.17 0.17
    Ca, % 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.70 0.60 0.60
    P, % 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.61 0.51 0.51
    Na, % 0.18 0.20 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18
Analyzed nutrient content, %
    DM 92.8 89.8 90.5 88.7 88.4 90.2
    CP 20.2 23.1 21.3 17.9 17.2 16.9
    Ether extract (HCl hydrolysis) 4.67 7.36 5.32 5.92 6.32 4.81
    Ash 5.76 5.83 5.66 4.69 4.25 3.78
    Crude fiber 2.41 3.35 2.74 2.31 3.21 2.65
    Ca 0.82 0.81 0.87 0.65 0.59 0.49
    Ph 0.66 0.72 0.69 0.60 0.49 0.45
    Na 0.19 0.20 0.17 0.20 0.18 0.16
    K 0.73 1.03 0.95 0.75 0.73 0.72
1Diets were fed over these BW ranges: adaptation, up to 25 kg; grower, 25 to 50 kg; finisher 1, 50 to 85 kg; and finisher 2, 85 kg to 110 kg.
2Animal/vegetable fat blend.
3Supplied 44 mg of lincomycin/kg of diet as lincomycin-HCl (Pfizer Canada Inc., Kirkland, QC, Canada).
4Provided the following amounts of vitamins and trace minerals per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 12,000 IU as retinyl acetate; vitamin D3, 1,200 IU as cholecalciferol; vitamin E, 48 IU as DL-α-tocopherol acetate; vitamin K, 3 mg as menadione; pantothenic acid, 18 mg; riboflavin, 6 mg; choline, 600 mg; folic acid, 2.4 mg; niacin, 30 mg; thiamine, 18 mg; pyridoxine, 1.8 mg; vitamin B12, 0.03 mg; biotin, 0.24 mg; Cu, 18 mg as CuSO4.5H2O; Fe, 120 mg as FeSO4; Mn, 24 mg as MnSO4; Zn, 126 mg as ZnO; Se, 0.36 mg as Na2SeO3; I, 0.6 mg as KI (DSM Nutritional Products Canada Inc., Ayr, ON, Canada).
5Concentratation of vitamin E: 500 IU/g of product
6Based on nutrient composition of feed ingredients according to NRC (1998).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Fatty acid (FA) content of the experimental diets (mg/kg DM)1

 
Item Grower flaxseed Grower control Finisher 1 control Finisher 2 control Finisher 2 flaxseed
Sum of all analyzed FA 50,271 33,616 39,897 34,916 40,577
SFA
    12:0 14.4 13.5 15.9 9.2 6.4
    14:0 54.0 287 442 239 30.3
    16:0 4,431 5,666 6,920 5,422 3,765
    18:0 1,869 2,392 3,346 2,040 1,287
    20:0 102 91.5 105 108 95.0
    22:0 89.4 55.6 52.0 54.0 62.9
    24:0 56.4 45.4 47.3 50.9 50.3
    Σ SFA 6,755 8,734 11,174 8,084 5,382
Branched-chain FA (BCFA)
    15:0 iso 15.0 12.6 21.8 11.2 4.40
    15:0 anteiso 2.27 17.8 29.0 15.3 1.34
    16:0 iso 4.92 13.9 22.8 11.9 4.72
    17:0 iso 1.59 8.1 12.7 6.8 0.88
    17:0 anteiso 12.9 44.1 66.3 39.3 10.0
    18:0 iso 2.32 12.3 18.5 10.9 1.35
    Σ BCFA 60.6 182 283 159 36.5
Trans-MUFA
    6t-8t-16:1 4.76 24.2 38.2 20.5 2.63
    9t-16:1 1.02 3.27 3.89 2.30 0.50
    10t-16:1 0.00 1.41 0.83 0.67 0.00
    11t/12t-16:1 0.00 2.56 3.75 2.16 0.00
    13t-16:1 12.9 44.1 66.3 39.3 10.0
    14t-16:1 6.01 6.24 5.49 4.41 2.22
    4t-18:1 1.06 1.63 1.90 1.41 1.44
    5t-18:1 1.32 1.75 2.39 1.63 0.89
    6t-8t-18:1 11.0 31.7 46.5 25.8 8.1
    9t-18:1 18.1 41.4 52.5 31.3 11.8
    10t-18:1 28.1 162 256 138 19.0
    11t-18:1 13.3 97.9 148.1 75.1 6.31
    12t-18:1 4.69 16.3 24.8 12.3 3.06
    Σ trans-MUFA 97.2 406 598 323 61.6
Cis-MUFA
    9c-12:1 12.1 0.72 1.44 0.86 2.73
    9c-14:1 1.9 37.0 61.2 32.7 0.68
    9c-16:1 33.2 160 232 130 21.3
    9c-17:1 23.0 61.0 93.4 56.0 17.7
    9c-18:1 10,612 9,133 11,378 9,571 9,047
    11c-18:1 539 342 403 289 430
    11c-20:1 94.9 105 124 103 80.6
    13c-22:1 11.4 7.50 8.38 7.60 6.72
    11c-24:1 8.46 6.53 6.54 5.35 5.26
    13c-24:1 4.35 11.4 10.7 9.27 8.91
    15c-24:1 4.66 7.06 6.99 5.54 4.30
    Σ cis-MUFA 11,598 10,191 12,765 10,478 9,785
n-6 PUFA
    16:2n-6 22.4 2.54 3.33 1.88 1.54
    18:2n-6 15,031 12,979 13,864 14,891 14,279
    18:3n-6 5.58 4.14 5.14 4.46 3.58
    20:2n-6 15.7 22.6 29.7 19.5 12.0
    20:3n-6 0.00 13.2 17.4 11.5 0.00
    20:4n-6 0.00 13.8 18.0 10.2 0.00
    22:2n-6 0.00 3.11 3.40 3.18 0.00
    22:4n-6 0.00 10.5 11.5 10.4 0.00
    22:5n-6 0.00 1.01 1.62 1.10 0.00
    Σ n-6 PUFA2 15,075 13,051 13,954 14,953 14,296
    Σ n-6 HUFA3 21.3 68.4 87.2 60.4 15.6
n-3 PUFA
    16:2n-3 3.42 2.39 3.19 2.74 2.47
    18:3n-3 16,481 878 745 720 10,835
    18:4n-3 0.00 0.38 0.57 0.96 0.00
    20:3n-3 12.99 4.13 4.73 3.36 8.24
    20:4n-3 0.00 1.92 3.08 1.89 0.00
    20:5n-3 0.00 5.42 7.47 4.99 0.00
    21:5n-3 0.00 2.84 2.39 2.59 0.00
    22:3n-3 13.3 24.8 32.3 21.2 12.0
    22:5n-3 0.00 5.40 8.18 4.73 0.00
    22:6n-3 0.00 3.80 5.48 3.29 0.00
    Σ n-3 PUFA4 16,511 929 812 766 10,857
    Σ n-3 HUFA5 26.3 48.7 64.3 43.0 20.2
    n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA 0.91 14.1 17.2 19.5 1.32
CLA
    9c11t-CLA 20.9 18.6 67.6 23.1 22.2
    8t10c-CLA 6.38 2.61 4.82 2.09 6.90
    9t11c-CLA 12.9 7.49 15.0 7.77 7.96
    10t12c-CLA 7.89 3.53 7.63 4.63 7.17
    11t13c/9c11c-CLA 28.5 2.20 4.37 5.08 27.5
    12t14c/13t15c-CLA 11.4 5.53 9.79 1.41 11.8
    11c13c-CLA 20.6 4.21 5.40 2.70 12.6
    12t14t/13t15c-CLA 28.6 44.8 136 74.2 25.3
    11t13t/13t15t-CLA 7.27 4.52 11.7 4.12 6.60
    9t11t/10t12t-CLA 29.6 11.6 25.7 9.13 31.1
    Σ CLA 174 105 288 134 159
1Diets were fed over these BW ranges: adaptation, up to 25 kg; grower, 25 to 50 kg; finisher 1, 50 to 85 kg; and finisher 2, 85 kg to 110 kg.
2n-6 PUFA is the sum of all n-6 PUFA.
3HUFA = highly unsaturated FA; n-6 HUFA is the sum of all n-6 PUFA minus 16:2n-6 and 18:2n-6.
4n-3 PUFA is the sum of all n-3 PUFA.
5n-3 HUFA is the sum of all n-3 PUFA minus 16:2n-3 and 18:3n-3.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Apparent ileal digestibilities (%) of crude fat and fatty acids (FA) in growing pigs (110 kg BW) fed diets containing 6% flaxseed or 1% tallow (Control)1

 
Item Flaxseed Control SEM P-value
n 7 8
Crude fat, % 75.6 73.9 3.4 0.568
Σ FA, % 79.4 81.8 2.8 0.623
SFA, %
    12:0 70.7 82.2 5.2 0.131
    13:0 86.1 90.6 2.8 0.253
    14:0 60.7 91.6 6.3 0.003
    16:0 70.7 76.6 5.4 0.429
    18:0 58.5 70.1 7.3 0.254
    20:0 70.9 78.5 5.8 0.352
    26:0 21.8 37.0 15.1 0.476
    Σ SFA, % 71.4 74.7 5.4 0.568
MUFA, %
    6t-8t-18:1 88.3 94.6 1.7 0.016
    9t-18:1 69.7 83.0 5.0 0.073
    10t-18:1 79.4 94.3 4.9 0.043
    11t-18:1 56.7 90.4 9.9 0.022
    12t-18:1 –24.6 76.4 27.2 0.018
    Σ trans-MUFA, % 76.4 87.9 7.8 0.198
    9c-12:1 62.3 29.2 11.0 0.042
    9c 14:1 85.1 97.2 5.0 0.092
    9c 16:1 77.9 88.3 2.8 0.069
    9c 18:1 83.3 88.2 3.2 0.262
    11c 18:1 75.9 64.5 7.6 0.296
    14c/16t-18:1 64.4 77.7 6.9 0.171
    15c-24:1 85.4 87.5 4.9 0.207
    Σ cis-MUFA, % 86.9 85.4 4.0 0.391
PUFA, %
    18:2n-6 80.2 86.1 0.9 0.284
    18:3n-3 89.8 86.7 2.4 0.370
    20:3n-3 –79.5 5.5 33.6 0.088
1Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude fat and FA were calculated as AID = 100 – [100 × ([FA] digesta × [Marker] feed)/([FA] diet × [Marker] digesta)].



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Crude fat and fatty acid (FA) flow at the distal ileum in growing pigs (110 kg BW) fed diets containing 6% flaxseed or 1% tallow (Control)1

 
Item Flaxseed Control SEM P-value
n 7 8
Crude fat,2 % of DM 1.33 1.42 0.42 0.889
Fat flow g/kg DMI 15.4 12.6 2.0 0.689
Fatty acid flow, g/kg DMI 8.33 6.17 1.07 0.457
SFA, mg/kg DMI
    12:0 1.89 1.64 0.37 0.625
    14:0 14.5 20.0 3.7 0.294
    16:0 1,377 1,271 297 0.799
    18:0 626 610 129 0.929
    20:0 27.7 23.3 5.8 0.588
    22:0 36.5 29.7 7.3 0.506
    24:0 49.1 41.5 10.0 0.589
    Σ SFA 2,187 2,053 303 0.846
Branched-chain FA (BCFA), mg/kg DMI
    15:0 iso 0.71 0.55 0.27 0.672
    15:0 anteiso 0.47 0.72 0.11 0.108
    16:0 iso 3.39 5.97 1.50 0.232
    17:0 iso 0.41 0.84 0.16 0.078
    17:0 anteiso 6.09 7.63 1.74 0.530
    18:0 iso 0.88 1.68 0.33 0.098
    Σ BCFA 14.7 21.6 3.2 0.359
MUFA, mg/kg DMI
    5t-18:1 0.20 0.23 0.08 0.845
    6t-8t-18:1 0.95 1.39 0.19 0.111
    9t-18:1 3.57 5.31 0.95 0.206
    10t-18:1 3.92 7.88 1.35 0.052
    11t-18:1 4.50 7.22 1.23 0.131
    12t-18:1 3.81 2.91 1.10 0.561
    Σ trans-MUFA 27.1 39.9 8.1 0.569
    9c-12:1 1.03 2.36 1.14 0.409
    9c-14:1 0.26 0.90 0.15 0.008
    9c-16:1 18.9 115 21 0.043
    9c-18:1 1,508 1,127 281 0.340
    11c-18:1 104 103 24 0.976
    11c-20:1 23.5 21.5 5.1 0.776
    13c-22:1 3.70 2.94 0.71 0.449
    15c-24:1 10.4 10.6 2.3 0.952
    Σ cis-MUFA 1,803 1,554 226 0.568
n-6 PUFA, mg/kg DMI
    16:2n-6 0.37 2.19 1.52 0.399
    18:2n-6 2,829 2,067 560 0.339
    18:3n-6 2.23 2.44 0.58 0.794
    20:2n-6 15.3 19.1 4.6 0.551
    20:3n-6 10.3 16.9 4.3 0.288
    20:4n-6 95.0 170 39 0.176
    22:2n-6 2.83 3.72 0.90 0.481
    22:4n-6 23.5 56.2 11.7 0.063
    Σ n-6 PUFA 2,978 2,338 408 0.421
n-3 PUFA, mg/kg DMI
    16:2n-3 0.26 0.17 0.09 0.702
    18:3n-3 1,103 96 163 <0.001
    18:4n-3 0.64 0.02 0.08 <0.001
    20:3n-3 14.8 3.18 2.33 0.004
    20:4n-3 1.16 0.28 0.16 0.001
    20:5n-3 17.9 4.32 2.57 0.002
    22:3n-3 3.14 2.28 0.70 0.384
    21:5n-3 2.80 1.32 0.48 0.041
    22:5n-3 44.2 29.4 7.8 0.189
    22:6n-3 1.33 0.77 0.23 0.100
    Σ n-3 PUFA 1,190 137 177 <0.001
CLA isomers, mg/kg DMI
    9c11t-CLA 62.2 17.6 10.1 0.006
    8t10c-CLA 1.61 1.51 0.25 0.141
    9t11c-CLA 0.64 0.17 0.22 0.139
    11c13t-CLA 0.33 0.32 0.08 0.875
    10t12c-CLA 0.42 0.18 0.15 0.276
    12t14c-CLA 0.20 0.81 0.18 0.029
    9c11c-CLA 0.67 0.68 0.19 0.976
    11c13c-CLA 0.27 0.53 0.20 0.190
    12t14t-CLA 7.30 8.07 2.09 0.786
    11t13t-CLA 0.82 1.10 0.30 0.437
    9t11t/10t12t-CLA 2.04 2.41 0.70 0.699
    Σ CLA 76.5 48.4 9.5 0.095
1Total distal ileal flow (mg/kg DMI) was calculated as flows: FA flow = [FA] digesta × ([Marker] feed)/([Marker] digesta); Nyachoti et al. (1997).
2Analyzed crude fat content in digesta samples.