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Analyzed chemical composition of soybean hulls and wheat middlings (as-fed basis)

 
Composition Soybean hulls Wheat middlings
DM, % 88.90 89.94
GE, kcal/kg 3,704 4,094
CP, % 9.34 17.14
Ether extract, % 1.51 3.89
Acid-hydrolyzed ether extract, % 2.47 4.87
Crude fiber, % 36.17 9.23
Ash, % 4.18 5.12



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Composition of experimental diets (as-fed basis)1

 
Growing pigs
Finishing pigs
Item Basal SBH WM Basal SBH WM
Ingredients, %
    Ground corn 62.62 43.83 43.83 78.96 55.27 55.27
    Soybean meal, 47.5% 31.80 22.26 22.26 16.10 11.27 11.27
    Soybean hulls 30.00 30.00
    Wheat middlings 30.00 30.00
    Soybean oil 2.00 1.40 1.40 2.00 1.40 1.40
    Ground limestone 1.15 0.81 0.81 1.00 0.70 0.70
    Monocalcium phosphate 1.22 0.85 0.85 0.73 0.51 0.51
    Chromic oxide 0.50 0.35 0.35 0.50 0.35 0.35
    Vitamins premix2 0.21 0.15 0.15 0.21 0.15 0.15
    Minerals premix3 0.50 0.35 0.35 0.50 0.35 0.35
    Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Energy and nutrients, analyzed
    DM, % 88.30 88.19 88.66 87.87 87.88 88.98
    GE, Mcal/kg 3.90 3.90 3.99 3.95 3.89 3.97
    CP, % 21.21 17.83 20.30 14.37 12.44 15.21
    Ether extract, % 4.38 3.36 3.82 4.55 3.43 4.10
    AEE,4 % 5.53 4.50 5.51 5.65 4.35 5.44
    Crude fiber, % 2.01 12.43 3.73 1.79 11.61 3.65
    Ash, % 6.09 5.28 5.76 4.28 4.21 4.78
Energy and nutrients, calculated5
    ME, Mcal/kg 3.38 2.97 3.28 3.41 2.99 3.30
    Total Lys, % 1.12 1.05 0.96 0.69 0.75 0.66
    Ca, % 0.77 0.73 0.58 0.58 0.60 0.44
    Bioavailable P, % 0.28 0.21 0.31 0.18 0.14 0.24
1Basal = basal diet; SBH = diet containing 30% soybean hulls; WM = diet containing 30% wheat middlings.
2Vitamin premix provided these quantities of vitamins per kilogram of the complete basal diet: vitamin A, 6,608 IU; vitamin D3, 680 IU; dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, 88 mg; menadione sodium bisulfite complex, 4 mg; riboflavin, 9 mg; vitamin B12, 35 μg; d-Ca-pantothenic acid, 24 mg; niacin, 33 mg; and choline chloride, 324 mg.
3Mineral premix provided these quantities of mineral per kilogram of the complete basal diet: Fe, 90 mg as ferrous sulfate; Zn, 100 mg as zinc oxide; Mn, 20 mg as manganese oxide; Cu, 8 mg as copper sulfate; I, 0.35 mg as potassium iodide; Se, 0.3 mg as sodium selenite; and NaCl, 3 g.
4AEE = acid-hydrolyzed ether extract.
5Values calculated from NRC (1998).



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Growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients of growing and finishing pigs fed the basal diet or the diets containing soybean hulls (SBH) or wheat middlings (WM)1

 
Dietary treatment2
Item Basal SBH WM SEM P-value3
Growing pigs
    Initial BW, kg 24.51 25.44 25.68 0.41 0.13
    Final BW, kg 56.69y 52.56x 50.69x 1.13 <0.01
    ADG, kg 1.15y 0.97x 0.89x 0.04 <0.01
    ADFI, kg 2.08 2.05 1.85 0.10 0.23
    G:F, kg/kg 0.56y 0.48x 0.48x 0.03 <0.05
ATTD, %
    Energy 71.7 68.7 70.6 3.8 0.86
    CP 73.9 68.3 72.4 3.0 0.42
    AEE4 52.8 56.9 54.9 5.3 0.86
Finishing pigs
    Initial BW, kg 85.70 84.10 84.13 1.25 0.59
    Final BW, kg 126.48ab 126.95b 121.25a 1.80 0.07
    ADG, kg 1.17ab 1.22b 1.06a 0.05 0.10
    ADFI, kg 3.19 3.41 3.12 0.13 0.30
    G:F, kg/kg 0.37 0.36 0.34 0.02 0.53
ATTD, %
    Energy 78.5y 68.7x 68.3x 2.0 <0.01
    CP 71.5y 54.0x 66.0y 2.6 <0.01
    AEE4 43.6 35.5 40.8 4.7 0.48
x,yMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05).
a,bMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter tend to be different (0.05 ≤ P ≤ 0.10).
1Data are least squares means of 8 observations per treatment.
2Basal = basal diet; SBH = diet containing 30% soybean hulls; WM = diet containing 30% wheat middlings.
3P-value for diet is based on ANOVA.
4AEE = acid-hydrolyzed ether extract.



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Carcass composition and weights of body components of growing and finishing pigs fed the basal diet or the diets containing soybean hulls (SBH) or wheat middlings (WM)1,2

 
Dietary treatment4
Item ISG3 Basal SBH WM SEM P-value5
Growing pigs
    Live BW, kg 24.0 51.5y 46.3x 45.9x 1.1 <0.01
    HCW, kg 19.1 41.8y 36.0x 36.2x 0.9 <0.01
    Dressing percentage, % 79.5 81.2y 77.7x 78.8x 0.5 <0.01
    Chilled carcass wt, kg 18.8 41.3y 35.6x 35.7x 0.9 <0.01
    Full viscera wt, kg 4.0 7.40a 8.0b 7.4ab 0.2 0.07
    Full viscera wt, % live wt 16.8 14.4x 17.4y 16.2y 0.4 <0.01
    Empty viscera wt, kg 2.0 3.6 3.6 3.7 0.1 0.84
    Empty viscera wt, % live BW 8.4 6.9x 7.8y 8.0y 0.3 0.01
    DF BW,6 kg 21.5 47.0y 41.2x 41.4x 1.0 <0.01
Finishing pigs
    Live BW, kg 80.9 121.8b 121.0ab 116.6a 1.7 0.08
    HCW, kg 67.1 103.5y 98.9 x 97.9x 1.5 0.04
    Dressing percentage, % 82.9 85.0y 81.7x 84.0y 0.6 <0.01
    Chilled carcass wt, kg 66.4 102.7y 99.6xy 97.1x 1.4 0.04
    Full viscera wt, kg 10.3 13.4x 16.3y 14.2x 0.5 <0.01
    Full viscera wt, % live BW 12.8 11.1x 13.5z 12.2y 0.3 <0.01
    Empty viscera wt, kg 8.6 11.2 11.7 11.1 0.3 0.26
    Empty viscera wt, % live BW 10.6 9.2 9.7 9.5 0.2 0.22
    DF BW,6 kg 78.3 118.6b 116.7ab 112.8a 1.6 0.05
x–zMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05).
a,bMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter tend to be different (0.05 ≤ P ≤ 0.10).
1Data are least squares means.
2n = 16 for initial slaughter group; n = 8 for all other treatments.
3ISG = initial slaughter group.
4Basal = basal diet; SBH = diet containing 30% soybean hulls; WM = diet containing 30% wheat middlings.
5P-value for diet is based on ANOVA.
6DF BW = digesta-free BW, which was the sum of the weight of chilled carcass, empty viscera, and blood.



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Retention of energy, protein, and lipids in growing pigs fed the basal diet or the diets containing soybean hulls (SBH) or wheat middlings (WM)1,2

 
Dietary treatment4
Item ISG3 Basal SBH WM SEM P-value5
Carcass
    Carcass DM, kg 5.54 16.08y 12.43x 12.29x 0.51 <0.01
    Protein, g/kg 574 585 586 576 22 0.94
    Lipids, g/kg 296 389y 333x 350x 12 <0.01
    Energy, Mcal/kg 5.98 6.32y 6.05x 6.20xy 0.06 0.02
Viscera
    Viscera DM, kg 0.42 0.85 0.79 0.85 0.03 0.24
    Protein, g/kg 657 580x 621y 583x 8 <0.01
    Lipids, g/kg 173 225y 185x 218y 8 <0.01
    Energy, Mcal/kg 5.65 5.91y 5.67x 5.83y 0.05 <0.01
Blood
    Blood DM, kg 0.13 0.38 0.36 0.37 0.02 0.52
    Protein, g/kg 959 901 900 900 2 0.85
    Lipids, g/kg 7 2 2 3 0 0.88
    Energy, Mcal/kg 5.49 5.31 5.29 5.30 0.01 0.68
Total DF body6
    DF BW, kg DM 6.09 17.32y 13.58x 13.52x 0.53 <0.01
    Protein, g/kg 588 592 597 585 21 0.93
    Lipids, g/kg 281 372y 316x 332x 11 <0.01
    Energy, Mcal/kg 5.95 6.28y 6.00x 6.15xy 0.08 0.01
    Total protein, kg/pig 3.58 10.27y 8.12x 7.91x 0.49 <0.01
    Total lipids, kg/pig 1.72 6.47y 4.31x 4.48x 0.28 <0.01
    Total energy, Mcal/pig 36.31 108.82y 81.61x 83.18x 3.60 <0.01
    Protein gain, g/d 245y 163x 154x 18 <0.01
    Lipid gain, g/d 172y 93x 98x 10 <0.01
    Lipid gain:protein gain, g/g 0.74 0.58 0.66 0.06 0.24
x,yMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05).
1Data are least squares means.
2n = 16 for initial slaughter group; n = 8 for all other treatments.
3ISG = initial slaughter group.
4Basal = basal diet; SBH = diet containing 30% soybean hulls; WM = diet containing 30% wheat middlings.
5P-value for diet is based on ANOVA.
6Total DF body = total digesta-free body, which includes chilled carcass, empty viscera, and blood. DF BW = the sum of the weight of chilled carcass, empty viscera, and blood.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Retention of energy, protein, and lipids in finishing pigs fed the basal diet or the diets containing soybean hulls (SBH) or wheat middlings (WM)1,2

 
Dietary treatment4
Item ISG3 Basal SBH WM SEM P-value5
Carcass
    Carcass DM, kg 27.96 45.24y 41.59xy 39.84x 1.28 0.02
    Protein, g/kg 388 311x 347y 350y 11 <0.05
    Lipids, g/kg 495 558 554 549 13 0.88
    Energy, Mcal/kg 7.00 7.29 7.12 7.13 0.08 0.26
Viscera
    Viscera DM, kg 2.53 3.61 3.78 3.55 0.16 0.59
    Protein, g/kg 456 402x 448y 494z 13 <0.01
    Lipids, g/kg 444 492 478 473 13 0.54
    Energy, Mcal/kg 6.87 7.17 7.11 7.05 0.07 0.47
Blood
    Blood DM, kg 0.66 0.88 0.96 0.86 0.05 0.42
    Protein, g/kg 971 895ab 894a 912b 9 0.07
    Lipids, g/kg 5 3 3 4 0 0.40
    Energy, Mcal/kg 5.51 5.27 5.27 5.32 0.02 0.15
Total DF body6
    DF BW DM, kg 31.14 49.73y 46.32xy 44.24x 1.30 0.02
    Protein, g/kg 406 328x 367y 372y 11 0.02
    Lipids, g/kg 481 543 536 532 12 0.81
    Energy, Mcal/kg 6.96 7.25 7.08 7.09 0.08 0.25
    Total protein, kg/pig 12.65 16.25 16.98 16.39 0.50 0.57
    Total lipids, kg/pig 14.96 27.12 24.84 23.65 1.13 0.11
    Total energy, Mcal/pig 216.6 361.2y 328.2xy 314.5x 11.9 0.03
    Protein gain, g/d 100 127 111 14 0.40
    Lipid gain, g/d 345 287 253 30 0.12
    Lipid gain:protein gain, g/g 4.36b 2.58ab 2.35a 0.65 0.08
x–zMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05).
a,bMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter tend to be different (0.05 ≤ P ≤ 0.10).
1Data are least squares means.
2n = 16 for initial slaughter group; n = 8 for all other treatments.
3ISG = initial slaughter group.
4Basal = basal diet; SBH = diet containing 30% soybean hulls; WM = diet containing 30% wheat middlings.
5P-value for diet is based on ANOVA.
6Total DF body = total digesta-free body, which includes chilled carcass, empty viscera, and blood. DF BW = the sum of the weight of chilled carcass, empty viscera, and blood.



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Net energy of diets and ingredients in growing and finishing pigs1

 
Dietary treatment2
Item Basal SBH WM SEM P-value3
Growing pigs
    Initial body energy,4 Mcal 34.7 36.1 36.4 0.6 0.13
    Final body energy, Mcal 108.8y 81.6x 83.2x 3.6 <0.01
    Energy retention, Mcal 74.1y 45.6x 46.8x 3.6 <0.01
    Total NEm,5 Mcal 46.1y 44.4x 43.8x 0.6 0.02
    Total NE intake,6 Mcal 120.2y 89.9x 90.6x 3.9 <0.01
    Total feed intake, kg 58.2 57.4 51.9 2.8 0.23
    NE of diets,7 kcal/kg 2,101y 1,577x 1,759x 89 <0.01
    NE of ingredients,8 kcal/kg 354 959 255 0.12
Finishing pigs
    Initial body energy,4 Mcal 218.3 214.2 214.3 3.2 0.59
    Final body energy, Mcal 361.2y 328.2xy 314.5x 11.9 0.03
    Energy retention, Mcal 142.9y 114.0xy 100.2x 11.0 0.04
    Total NEm,5 Mcal 101.7y 98.3x 99.5xy 0.8 0.02
    Total NE intake,6 Mcal 244.6y 212.4xy 199.8x 11.4 0.03
    Total feed intake, kg 111.7 119.4 109.3 4.7 0.30
    NE of diets,7 kcal/kg 2,204a 1,799b 1,847b 120 0.05
    NE of ingredients,8 kcal/kg 852 1015 411 0.78
x,yMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05).
a,bMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter tend to be different (0.05 ≤ P ≤ 0.10).
1Data are least squares means of 8 observations per treatment for growing pigs and finishing pigs.
2Basal = basal diet; SBH = diet containing 30% soybean hulls; WM = diet containing 30% wheat middlings.
3P-value for diet is based on ANOVA.
4Initial energy was calculated by multiplying the initial BW of pigs by the energy concentration (Mcal/kg BW) of pigs in the initial slaughter groups. The average BW of pigs in the initial slaughter groups were 25.62 and 85.05 kg for growing and finishing pigs, respectively.
5Total NEm was calculated by multiplying the mean metabolic BW (kg0.6) of each pig by 179 kcal for growing and finishing pigs (Noblet et al., 1994a) and the number of days on experiment (28 d for growing pigs and 35 d for finishing pigs).
6Total NE intake = energy retention plus total NEm.
7NE of the basal diet, the diet containing 30% SBH, or the diet containing 30% WM.
8The NE of SBH and WM were calculated using the difference procedure by subtracting the NE contribution from the basal diet from the NE of the diets containing 30% SBH or 30% WM (de Goey and Ewan, 1975).



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Net energy of the diets containing soybean hulls (SBH) or wheat middlings (WM) and net energy of SBH and WM as affected by the stage of growth1

 
Ingredient
Stage of growth2
P-value3
Item SBH WM G F SEM Ingredient Stage
NE of diets,4 kcal/kg 1,688 1,803 1,668 1,823 72 0.27 0.14
NE of ingredients,5 kcal/kg 603 987 656 934 239 0.27 0.42
1Data are least squares means of 16 observations.
2Stage of growth = growing (G) and finishing (F).
3P-values for main effects of ingredient and stage of growth. No interactions between ingredient and stage of growth were observed for the NE of diets containing SBH or WM and NE of SBH or WM.
4NE of diets containing 30% SBH or 30% WM.
5NE of SBH or WM.