View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Composition of diets (%, as-fed basis)1

 
Item Std CaP2 High CaP2
Ingredient
    Corn 66.45 66.45
    Soybean meal, 48% CP 26.90 26.90
    Corn starch ± ±
    Choice white grease 1.00 1.00
    Phosphorus pentoxide 0.05 0.30
    Ca carbonate, chalk 1.35 2.25
    Na phosphate, dibasic 0.75 1.65
    TM premix3,4 ± ±
    Se premix–5 ± ±
    HCl solution (5.5 M) 0.50 0.50
    Cr picolinate6 0.05 0.05
    Vitamin premix7 0.25 0.25
    Antimicrobial8 0.05 0.05
Composition
    Lys, calculated 1.00 1.00
    Ca, analyzed 0.67 0.92
    P, analyzed 0.49 0.77
1± = depending on treatment, added an ingredient accordingly.
2Std = standard and CaP = Ca and P; CaP were added at the expense of corn starch to meet the Std (Ca = 0.65% and Ptotal = 0.55%) or High (Ca = 1.00% and Ptotal = 0.85%) calculated CaP treatment levels.
3Trace mineral (TM) supplements added at the expense of corn starch. At 0.25% diet provided industry levels of trace minerals: 15 mg Cu/kg, 150 mg Fe/kg, 10 mg Mn/kg, 140 mg Zn/kg, and 0.14 mg I/kg. Inorganic trace minerals were copper sulfate, ferrous sulfate, manganese oxide, and zinc sulfate. Organic trace minerals were Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn proteinates (Bioplex, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY). Iodine was provided as potassium iodate to both organic and inorganic TM treatments.
4With addition of TM premix, diets were analyzed to contain 0.15% Mg, 0.78% K, 0.17% S, 14.2 mg/kg Cu, 212 mg/kg Fe, 21.7 mg/kg Mn, 0.33 mg/kg Se, and 155 mg/kg Zn
5Selenium was added at 0.3 mg/kg of diet in TM supplemented diets at the expense of corn starch. Inorganic Se was provided as sodium selenite and organic Se was provided as Se yeast (Sel-plex, Alltech, Inc.).
6Chromium picolinate was provided at 0.20 mg/kg diet (Chromax, Prince Agri-Products, Quincy, IL).
7Vitamin premix was formulated to provide per kilogram diet: 1450 IU vitamin A (acetate), 167 IU D3 (cholecaliferol), 12 IU vitamin E (dl-α-tocopherol acetate), 0.6 mg vitamin K (menadione), 2.8 mg riboflavin, 8.9 mg pantothenic acid (d-Ca pantothenate), 11.2 mg niacin, 0.3 mg folic acid, 0.06 biotin, and 11.1 μg B12.
8Tylosin (Tylan) was added at 44 mg/kg diet (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Effects of Ca and P (CaP) levels and trace mineral (TM) treatments on growing pig performance1

 
Std CaP
High CaP
P-value
Item Basal Inorg Org Basal Inorg Org SEM Std vs. High CaP2 Inorg vs. Org3 CaP × added TM form4 Basal vs.added TM5 Basal Std vs. Basal High6
Observations 8 8 8 8 8 8
ADFI, g 1,597 1,585 1,573 1,597 1,591 1,577 64 0.83 0.43 0.94 0.29 0.99
Initial BW, kg 43.5 45.2 44.0 44.6 44.6 44.8 1.9 0.43 0.46 0.08 0.25 0.15
Final BW, kg 59.6 61.1 59.8 59.8 59.2 59.0 3.2 0.09 0.20 0.36 0.85 0.73
1CaP levels: Std (standard) = 0.65% Ca and 0.55% total P; High = 1.00% Ca and 0.85% total P. TM treatment: Basal = no added TM; Inorg = TM added in inorganic form; Org = TM added in organic form. Added TM provided per kilogram feed: 15 mg Cu, 150 mg Fe, 10 mg Mn, 0.3 mg Se, and 140 mg Zn.
2Main effect of CaP levels (Std vs. High) across all TM treatments.
3Contrast: Org vs. Inorg added TM.
4Interaction between added TM form and CaP levels; Basal TM treatment was not considered.
5Contrast: Basal TM treatment vs. both Org and Inorg added TM.
6Contrast: Std vs. High CaP levels within the Basal TM treatment only.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Main effects of Ca and P (CaP) levels and trace mineral (TM) treatment on macromineral digestibility

 
CaP level1
TM treatment2
Item Std High SEM Std vs. High CaP3 Basal Inorg Org SEM Inorg vs. Org4 Basal vs.added TM5
No. of pigs 24 24 16 16 16
Ca, g/d
    Intake 10.41 16.05 0.23 0.01 13.32 13.25 13.14 0.54 0.57 0.35
    Fecal 4.16 7.21 0.53 0.01 5.65 5.56 5.84 0.60 0.48 0.91
    Urine 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.96 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.71 0.73
    Retention 6.23 8.81 0.30 0.01 7.64 7.65 7.27 4.05 0.24 0.66
    ATTD,6% 60.7 55.5 2.6 0.04 58.0 59.1 57.2 3.1 0.48 0.96
P, g/d
    Intake 8.77 13.53 0.44 0.01 11.22 11.16 11.07 0.46 0.57 0.35
    Fecal 3.49 5.60 2.94 0.01 4.56 4.58 4.50 0.34 0.76 0.92
    Urine 0.11 1.34 0.10 0.01 0.93 0.60 0.64 0.12 0.77 0.01
    Retention 5.16 6.60 0.36 0.01 5.72 5.98 5.94 0.27 0.85 0.31
    ATTD, % 60.1 58.8 1.4 0.50 59.6 59.0 59.7 2.0 0.78 0.91
Mg, g/d
    Intake 3.12 3.13 0.12 0.83 3.15 3.13 3.10 0.12 0.51 0.14
    Fecal 1.54 1.67 0.09 0.10 1.58 1.64 1.60 0.11 0.68 0.58
    Urine 0.06 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.90 0.99
    Retention 1.52 1.45 0.07 0.31 1.53 1.45 1.47 0.08 0.83 0.38
    ATTD, % 50.6 46.9 1.6 0.11 49.8 47.8 48.7 2.4 0.77 0.50
K, g/d
    Intake 12.63 12.66 0.49 0.83 12.73 12.66 12.55 0.49 0.51 0.14
    Fecal 1.79 1.91 0.10 0.20 1.86 1.86 1.83 0.11 0.82 0.87
    Urine 5.43 5.49 0.40 0.85 5.54 5.65 5.19 0.45 0.25 0.68
    Retention 5.41 5.26 0.28 0.60 5.32 5.15 5.53 0.35 0.34 0.95
    ATTD, % 85.8 85.0 0.5 0.25 85.4 85.3 85.4 0.70 0.95 0.99
S, g/d
    Intake 3.17 3.18 0.12 0.82 3.19 3.18 3.15 0.12 0.50 0.13
    Fecal 0.52 0.62 0.03 0.01 0.50 0.61 0.60 0.04 0.65 0.01
    Urine 0.83 0.86 0.10 0.62 0.80 0.91 0.82 0.11 0.20 0.20
    Retention 1.71 1.82 0.08 0.04 1.88 1.66 1.74 0.09 0.28 0.01
    ATTD, % 83.5 80.7 0.4 0.01 84.2 80.9 81.1 0.6 0.79 0.01
1CaP levels: Std (standard) = 0.65% Ca and 0.55% total P; High = 1.00% Ca and 0.85% total P.
2TM treatment: Basal = no added TM; Inorg = TM added in inorganic form; Org = TM added in organic form. Added TM provided per kilogram diet: 15 mg Cu, 150 mg Fe, 10 mg Mn, 0.3 mg Se, and 140 mg Zn.
3P-value for the main effect of CaP levels (Std vs. High) across all TM treatments.
4P-value for the contrast between Org vs. Inorg added TM.
5P-value for the contrast of the Basal treatment vs. both Org and Inorg added TM.
6ATTD = Apparent total tract digestibility.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Main effects of C and P (CaP) level and trace mineral (TM) treatments on micromineral digestibility

 
CaP level1
TM treatment2
Item Std. High SEM Std vs. High CaP3 Basal Inorg Org SEM Inorg vs. Org4 Basal vs. Added TM5
No. of pigs 24 24 16 16 16
Cu, mg/d
    Intake 27.52 27.59 1.45 0.90 11.81 35.58 35.27 1.60 0.53 0.01
    Fecal 20.73 21.59 0.98 0.51 6.42 29.40 27.65 1.54 0.37 0.01
    Urine 0.05 0.09 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.10 0.11 0.02 0.24 0.01
    Retention 6.75 5.88 0.67 0.36 5.31 6.06 7.56 1.11 0.29 0.06
    ATTD,6% 29.1 26.9 2.5 0.38 44.4 17.6 22.1 3.2 0.20 0.01
Fe, mg/d
    Intake 334.9 335.7 16.9 0.90 167.6 420.8 417.4 17.9 0.53 0.01
    Fecal 214.0 241.9 14.2 0.11 101.3 303.7 278.8 20.7 0.32 0.01
    Urine 2.20 1.60 0.50 0.29 1.90 2.00 1.80 0.90 0.26 0.99
    Retention 109.4 118.7 17.2 0.32 64.4 125.1 152.3 18.7 0.04 0.01
    ATTD, % 38.0 35.1 4.1 0.55 43.6 29.3 36.8 5.1 0.03 0.02
Mn, mg/d
    Intake 33.19 33.27 0.95 0.89 22.82 38.58 38.27 1.10 0.71 0.01
    Fecal 27.90 29.41 1.24 0.31 17.86 33.97 34.13 1.82 0.94 0.01
    Urine 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.58 0.92
    Retention 6.94 4.89 0.74 0.06 4.81 5.23 7.71 1.15 0.11 0.07
    ATTD, % 21.6 16.10 2.1 0.07 21.7 14.1 20.7 3.0 0.11 0.14
Se, mg/d
    Intake 0.50 0.50 0.03 0.91 0.19 0.67 0.66 0.03 0.53 0.01
    Fecal 0.12 0.12 0.01 0.96 0.04 0.17 0.15 0.02 0.16 0.01
    Urine 0.12 0.13 0.01 0.84 0.02 0.24 0.11 0.02 0.01 0.01
    Retention 0.26 0.26 0.02 0.89 0.13 0.25 0.40 0.02 0.01 0.01
    ATTD, % 76.5 75.9 2.7 0.80 77.3 73.9 77.5 3.8 0.10 0.64
Zn, mg/d
    Intake 189.9 190.4 11.0 0.92 42.8 264.9 262.7 12.2 0.53 0.01
    Fecal 157.2 159.2 7.2 0.62 32.1 222.4 215.5 9.1 0.65 0.01
    Urine 1.4 1.4 0.2 0.71 1.0 1.6 1.7 0.2 0.18 0.01
    Retention 35.1 29.6 4.5 0.38 10.5 40.9 45.6 7.3 0.62 0.01
    ATTD, % 23.5 16.4 2.6 0.03 25.2 16.2 18.5 3.4 0.50 0.05
1CaP levels: Std (standard) = 0.65% Ca and 0.55% total P; High = 1.00% Ca and 0.85% total P.
2TM treatment: Basal = no added TM; Inorg = TM added in inorganic form; Org = TM added in organic form. Added TM provided per kilogram diet: 15 mg Cu, 150 mg Fe, 10 mg Mn, 0.3 mg Se, and 140 mg Zn.
3P-value for the main effect of CaP levels (Std vs. High) across all TM treatments.
4P-value for the contrast between Org vs. Inorg added TM.
5P-value for the contrast of the Basal treatment vs. both Org and Inorg added TM.
6ATTD = Apparent total tract digestibility.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Interactive effects of Ca and P (CaP) levels and trace mineral (TM) treatment on macromineral digestibility

 
CaP1:
Std CaP
High CaP
P-values
Item TM2: Basal Inorg Org Basal Inorg Org SEM Std vs. High CaP3 Inorg vs. Org4 CaP × added TM form5 Basal vs.Added TM6 Basal Std vs. Basal High7
No. of pigs 8 8 8 8 8 8
Ca, g/d
    Intake 10.49 10.42 10.34 16.14 16.08 15.94 0.57 0.01 0.57 0.86 0.35 0.01
    Fecal 4.30 4.09 4.09 7.00 7.04 7.59 0.71 0.01 0.48 0.48 0.91 0.01
    Urine 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.96 0.71 0.44 0.73 0.40
    Retention 6.15 6.30 6.22 9.12 9.00 8.32 0.40 0.01 0.24 0.35 0.66 0.01
    ATTD,8% 59.1 61.3 61.6 56.9 56.9 52.7 3.9 0.04 0.48 0.42 0.96 0.65
P, g/d
    Intake 8.83 8.77 8.70 13.60 13.55 13.43 0.48 0.01 0.57 0.86 0.35 0.01
    Fecal 3.37 3.68 3.43 5.75 5.47 5.56 0.41 0.01 0.76 0.53 0.92 0.01
    Urine 0.20 0.07 0.06 1.67 1.13 1.21 0.14 0.01 0.77 0.70 0.01 0.01
    Retention 5.26 5.02 5.21 6.18 6.95 6.66 0.34 0.01 0.85 0.32 0.31 0.04
    ATTD, % 61.4 58.1 60.9 57.8 60.0 58.6 2.9 0.50 0.78 0.44 0.91 0.24
Mg, g/d
    Intake 3.15 3.12 3.10 3.15 3.13 3.11 0.13 0.83 0.51 0.95 0.14 0.98
    Fecal 1.49 1.64 1.49 1.67 1.64 1.70 0.13 0.10 0.68 0.32 0.58 0.15
    Urine 0.05 0.07 0.06 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.90 0.98 0.99 0.16
    Retention 1.60 1.42 1.54 1.46 1.48 1.40 0.11 0.31 0.83 0.23 0.38 0.32
    ATTD, % 52.3 47.5 52.1 47.2 48.1 45.3 3.4 0.11 0.77 0.43 0.50 0.13
K, g/d
    Intake 12.73 12.64 12.54 12.73 12.68 12.57 0.52 0.83 0.51 0.95 0.14 0.97
    Fecal 1.79 1.78 1.80 1.93 1.93 1.86 0.14 0.20 0.82 0.67 0.87 0.45
    Urine 5.66 5.74 4.90 5.43 5.55 5.49 0.54 0.85 0.25 0.32 0.68 0.60
    Retention 0.53 5.11 0.58 5.37 5.20 5.21 0.45 0.60 0.34 0.35 0.95 0.78
    ATTD, % 85.9 85.9 85.5 84.9 84.8 85.3 0.9 0.25 0.95 0.62 0.99 0.43
S, g/d
    Intake 3.19 3.17 3.15 3.19 3.18 3.15 0.12 0.82 0.50 0.95 0.13 0.99
    Fecal 0.46 0.57 0.54 0.55 0.65 0.65 0.04 0.01 0.65 0.47 0.01 0.07
    Urine 0.82 0.92 0.76 0.79 0.91 0.87 0.12 0.62 0.20 0.41 0.20 0.65
    Retention 1.92 1.69 1.85 1.85 1.63 1.63 0.11 0.04 0.28 0.30 0.01 0.30
    ATTD, % 85.6 82.1 82.9 82.8 79.8 79.4 0.8 0.01 0.79 0.43 0.01 0.01
1CaP levels: Std (standard) = 0.65% Ca & 0.55% total P; High = 1.00% Ca & 0.85% total P.
2TM treatment: Basal = no added trace mineral; Inorg = TM added in inorganic form; Org = TM added in organic form. Added TM provided per kilogram diet: 15 mg Cu, 150 mg Fe, 10 mg Mn, 0.3 mg Se, and 140 mg Zn.
3Main effect of CaP levels (Std vs. High) across all TM treatments.
4Contrast: Org vs. Inorg added TM.
5Interaction between added TM and CaP levels; Basal trace mineral treatment was not considered.
6Contrast: Basal TM treatment vs. both Org and Inorg added TM.
7Contrast: Std vs. High CaP levels within the Basal TM.
8ATTD = Apparent total tract digestibility.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Interactive effects of Ca and P (CaP) levels and trace mineral (TM) treatment on micromineral digestibility

 
CaP1:
Std CaP
High CaP
P-values
Item TM2: Basal Inorg Org Basal Inorg Org SEM Std vs. High CaP3 Inorg vs. Org4 CaP × added TM form5 Basal vs.Added TM6 Basal Std vs. Basal High7
No.of pigs 8 8 8 8 8 8 -
Cu, mg/d
    Intake 11.81 35.50 35.24 11.81 35.64 35.31 1.69 0.90 0.53 0.95 0.01 0.99
    Fecal 6.06 29.53 26.59 6.78 29.28 28.71 1.74 0.51 0.37 0.54 0.01 0.25
    Urine 0.03 0.05 0.09 0.05 0.10 0.11 0.03 0.04 0.24 0.55 0.01 0.30
    Retention 5.63 6.00 8.63 5.00 6.13 6.50 1.57 0.36 0.29 0.42 0.06 0.31
    ATTD,8% 45.4 16.8 25.6 43.3 18.4 18.9 4.2 0.38 0.20 0.25 0.01 0.55
Fe, mg/d
    Intake 167.6 421.6 417.8 167.6 420.1 417.0 19.3 0.90 0.53 0.95 0.01 0.99
    Fecal 98.1 297.1 246.8 104.4 310.4 310.8 28.3 0.11 0.32 0.31 0.01 0.65
    Urine 2.7 2.3 1.7 1.1 1.8 1.8 1.3 0.29 0.26 0.28 0.99 0.38
    Retention 66.8 120.8 168.6 62.1 126.5 136.5 20.8 0.32 0.04 0.12 0.01 0.68
    ATTD, % 38.6 28.2 40.4 36.0 30.1 33.2 8.7 0.55 0.03 0.14 0.02 0.82
Mn, mg/d
    Intake 22.82 38.51 38.22 22.82 38.65 38.32 1.21 0.89 0.71 0.98 0.01 0.99
    Fecal 16.90 34.31 32.49 18.83 33.63 35.77 2.48 0.31 0.94 0.35 0.01 0.11
    Urine 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.58 0.48 0.92 0.11
    Retention 5.88 4.73 10.22 3.78 5.72 5.20 1.61 0.06 0.11 0.06 0.07 0.05
    ATTD, % 25.4 12.3 26.9 18.0 15.8 14.5 4.2 0.07 0.11 0.06 0.14 0.08
Se, mg/d
    Intake 0.19 0.66 0.66 0.19 0.67 0.66 0.03 0.91 0.53 0.95 0.01 0.99
    Fecal 0.04 0.17 0.15 0.05 0.17 0.14 0.02 0.96 0.16 0.79 0.01 0.64
    Urine 0.01 0.23 0.12 0.02 0.26 0.11 0.02 0.84 0.01 0.48 0.01 0.42
    Retention 0.14 0.26 0.39 0.13 0.24 0.41 0.04 0.89 0.01 0.43 0.01 0.50
    ATTD, % 78.7 74.0 77.0 75.9 73.8 78.1 4.9 0.80 0.10 0.77 0.64 0.66
Zn, mg/d
    Intake 42.8 264.4 262.5 42.8 265.3 263.0 13.8 0.92 0.53 0.95 0.01 0.99
    Fecal 29.5 225.5 207.6 34.8 219.3 223.5 16.9 0.62 0.65 0.47 0.01 0.08
    Urine 1.2 1.5 1.7 0.8 1.7 1.8 0.2 0.71 0.18 0.67 0.01 0.07
    Retention 14.5 37.6 53.3 6.5 44.3 37.9 10.3 0.38 0.62 0.24 0.01 0.03
    ATTD, % 34.3 14.6 21.7 16.2 17.7 15.4 5.3 0.03 0.50 0.18 0.05 0.02
1CaP levels: Std (standard) = 0.65% Ca & 0.55% total P; High = 1.00% Ca & 0.85% total P.
2TM treatment: Basal = no added TM; Inorg = TM added in inorganic form; Org = TM added in organic form. Added TM provided per kilogram diet: 15 mg Cu, 150 mg Fe, 10 mg Mn, 0.3 mg Se, and 140 mg Zn.
3Main effect of CaP levels (Std vs. High) across all TM treatments.
4Contrast: Org vs. Inorg added TM.
5Interaction between added trace mineral form and CaP levesl; Basal TM treatment was not considered.
6Contrast: Basal TM treatment vs. both Org and Inorg added TM.
7Contrast: Std vs. High CaP levels within the Basal TM treatments.
8ATTD = Apparent total tract digestibility.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Summary of apparent total tract digestibility of macro- and microminerals in growing swine (%)

 
TM1: Basal
Inorg TM
Org TM
Item CaP2: Std High SEM P-value Std High SEM P-value Std High SEM P-value
Macromerals
    Ca 59.1 56.9 3.1 0.65 61.3 56.9 2.5 0.18 61.6 52.7 3.0 0.07
    P 61.4 57.8 1.5 0.23 58.1 60.0 1.6 0.57 60.9 58.6 2.0 0.59
    Mg 52.3 47.2 1.6 0.13 47.5 48.1 2.0 0.87 52.1 45.3 2.4 0.18
    K 85.9 84.9 0.7 0.43 85.9 84.8 0.7 0.44 85.5 85.3 0.5 0.74
    S 85.6 82.8 0.5 0.01 82.1 79.8 0.5 0.05 82.9 79.4 0.6 0.01
    avg 68.9 65.9 67.0 65.9 68.6 64.3
Microminerals
    Cu 45.4 43.3 2.4 0.55 16.8 18.4 2.5 0.70 25.6 18.9 3.2 0.26
    Fe 38.6 36.0 5.1 0.66 28.2 30.1 4.0 0.61 40.4 33.2 4.1 0.16
    Mn 25.4 18.0 2.1 0.08 12.3 15.8 2.5 0.50 26.9 14.5 3.1 0.08
    Se 78.7 75.9 3.8 0.66 74.0 73.8 2.7 0.97 77.0 78.1 2.1 0.49
    Zn 34.3 16.2 3.4 0.02 14.6 17.7 2.3 0.44 21.7 15.4 3.0 0.28
    avg 44.5 37.9 29.2 31.2 38.3 32.0
1TM treatment: Basal = no added TM; Inorg = TM added in inorganic form; Org = TM added in organic form. Added TM provided per kilogram diet: 15 mg Cu, 150 mg Fe, 10 mg Mn, 0.3 mg Se, and 140 mg Zn.
2CaP levels: Std (standard) = 0.65% Ca and 0.55% total P; High = 1.00% Ca and 0.85% total P.