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Ingredients of the reference diet (as-fed basis)

 
Ingredients Content, %
Maize (yellow dent) 59.08
Poultry by-product meal 26.14
Corn gluten meal, 60% CP 5.71
Bovine fat 5.00
Dried hydrolyzed poultry liver 1.86
Calcium propionate 0.17
Potassium sorbate 0.03
Mineral and vitamin supplement1 1.30
Sodium chloride 0.71
1Provided per kilogram of feed: vitamin A (retinol) = 20,000 IU; vitamin D3 = 2,000 IU; vitamin E (α-tocopherol) = 48 mg; vitamin K3 = 48 mg; vitamin B1 = 4 mg; vitamin B2 = 32 mg; pantothenic acid = 16 mg; niacin = 56 mg; choline = 800 mg; Zn as zinc oxide = 150 mg; Fe as ferrous sulfate = 100 mg; Cu as copper sulfate = 15 mg; I as potassium iodide = 1.5 mg; Mn as manganous oxide = 30 mg; Se as sodium selenite = 0.2 mg; antioxidant = 240 mg.



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Analyzed DM content and chemical composition of experimental diets1

 
Diets
Item REF DSM2 SBM2 MSB2 TSB2 RSB2
DM, % 90.97 91.78 91.85 92.94 92.08 92.44
Chemical composition (DM basis)
    CP, % 24.62 31.16 30.98 29.57 28.76 28.58
    Acid hydrolyzed fat (AHF), % 11.01 8.72 10.26 13.44 14.42 14.50
    Crude fiber, % 1.35 1.10 1.74 1.06 1.65 1.63
    NDF, % 3.78 3.42 4.53 3.13 4.38 4.35
    Ash, % 7.00 6.87 6.86 6.65 6.74 6.76
    Ca, % 1.43 1.51 1.23 1.24 1.43 1.39
    Total P, % 1.03 1.05 0.91 1.00 0.94 0.92
    N-free extract (NFE),3 % 56.02 52.15 50.16 49.28 48.43 48.53
    ME,4 MJ/kg 15.7 15.3 15.5 16.3 16.4 16.5
1REF = reference diet; DSM = defatted soybean meal; SBM = soybean meal; MSB = micronized soybeans; TSB = toasted soybeans; RSB = raw soybeans.
2The experimental diets consisted of 70% of the REF diet and 30% of the ingredient tested per kilogram (as-fed basis).
3Estimated as NFE = 100 – (ash + CP + AHF + crude fiber).
4ME = 0.01465 × CP + 0.03558 × AHF + 0.01465 × NFE.



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Analyzed DM content, chemical composition, and qualitative variables of soybean protein products1

 
Soybean products
Item DSM SBM MSB TSB RSB
DM, % 93.91 89.22 95.73 89.71 89.50
Chemical composition (DM basis)
    CP, % 52.41 46.72 40.80 37.62 37.64
    Acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF), % 2.62 4.11 21.54 23.40 23.12
    Ash, % 6.14 6.10 4.70 4.98 4.90
    Crude fiber, % 1.60 5.34 1.53 4.13 4.05
    NDF, % 8.91 14.72 13.90 10.60 10.42
    N-free extract (NFE),2 % 37.23 37.73 31.43 29.87 30.29
    Ca, % 0.40 0.40 0.20 0.31 0.31
    Total P, % 0.90 0.63 0.60 0.61 0.62
    GE, MJ/kg 19.5 20.2 24.2 23.8 23.7
Qualitative variables (DM basis)
    Urease, Δ pH 0.22 0.05 0.04 0.07 1.74
    Trypsin inhibitor, mg/g 9.0 6.6 6.6 3.1 45.1
    Protein dispersibility index, % 8.56 10.74 13.03 10.31 54.24
1DSM = defatted soybean meal; SBM = soybean meal; MSB = micronized soybeans; TSB = toasted soybeans; RSB = raw soybeans.
2Estimated as NFE = 100 – (ash + CP + AHF + crude fiber).



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Urease activity (Δ pH) and trypsin inhibitor activity (mg/g) of mash (MAS) and extruded (EXT) diets containing 30% soybean protein products (n = 3)1

 
Diets
Item REF DSM SBM MSB TSB RSB
Urease MAS 0.00 0.10a 0.05a 0.03a 0.06a 1.16a
EXT 0.00 0.04b 0.03b 0.00b 0.01b 0.03b
Trypsin inhibitor MAS 0.0 3.2a 3.5a 2.2 1.4 15.8a
EXT 0.0 1.7b 2.0b 2.2 1.5 4.1b
a,bMeans in the same column followed by different letters are different (P < 0.05).
1REF = reference; DSM = defatted soybean meal; SBM = soybean meal; MSB = micronized soybeans; TSB = toasted soybeans; RSB = raw soybeans.



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Dry matter intake (g/d), apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy, digestible nutrients and energy, and ME of soybean protein products (SP) in dogs of different ages

 
SP1 P-value
Item Age1 DSM SBM MSB TSB RSB SEM SP Age SP × age
DMI Adults 246 246 241 242 242 2 0.288 0.113 0.855
Puppies 260 260 253 254 254 2
ATTD, %
    DM Adults 75.6Bb 75.8b 85.1a 76.7b 75.9b 0.7 <0.001 <0.001 0.048
Puppies 78.3Ab 77.3b 85.0a 78.4b 75.6c 0.6
    CP Adults 85.1b 85.2b 88.4a 84.7b 78.9c 0.5 <0.001 0.193 0.185
Puppies 84.8b 85.2b 87.4a 84.5b 76.4c 0.6
    AHF1 Adults 84.3Bb 84.3Bb 96.8Ba 96.6Ba 96.4Ba 1.0 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Puppies 93.9Ac 95.8Ab 98.2Aa 98.5Aa 99.0Aa 0.5
    NFE1 Adults 92.7 92.7 94.8 93.8 93.0 0.4 <0.001 0.607 0.200
Puppies 93.9 92.4 94.1 92.2 92.4 0.6
    GE Adults 79.8b 79.7b 88.8a 81.7b 79.6b 0.7 <0.001 0.095 0.121
Puppies 81.3b 80.1b 87.8a 82.4b 78.6b 0.8
Digestible nutrient, % DM, and energy, MJ/kg DM
    Protein Adults 44.60a 39.81b 36.07c 31.86d 29.70e 11.28 <0.001 0.897 0.923
Puppies 44.44a 39.81b 35.66c 31.79d 28.76e 12.14
    Fat Adults 2.21d 3.46c 20.85b 22.60a 22.29a 9.87 <0.001 0.356 0.423
Puppies 2.46d 3.94c 21.15b 23.05a 22.89a 8.56
    Energy Adults 15.59e 16.07d 21.46a 19.43b 18.89c 0.40 <0.001 0.178 0.231
Puppies 15.88e 16.15d 21.22a 19.60b 18.65c 0.38
ME, MJ/kg DM
    ME Adults 15.23e 17.04d 21.39a 19.19b 18.64c 0.25 <0.001 0.071 0.162
Puppies 15.55e 17.13d 21.20a 19.50b 18.44c 0.29
A,BMeans in the same column followed by different capital letters are different (P < 0.05).
a,bMeans in the same row followed by different lowercase letters are different (P < 0.05).
1DSM = defatted soybean meal; SBM = soybean meal; MSB = micronized soybeans; TSB = toasted soybeans; RSB = raw soybeans; AHF = acid-hydrolyzed fat; NFE = N-free extract.



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Fecal characteristics of dogs of different ages fed a reference (REF) diet and diets containing 30% soybean protein products

 
Diet1
P-value
Item Age1 REF DSM SBM MSB TSB RSB SEM Diet Age Diet × Age
DM, % Adults 40.9Aa 31.5Ab 31.1Ab 31.5Ab 31.5Ab 31.9Ab 0.6 <0.001 <0.001 0.889
Puppies 36.6Ba 28.2Bb 28.7Bb 29.4Bb 28.3Bb 28.7Bb 0.6
Score Adults 4.0Aa 3.3Ab 3.1b 3.3b 3.4Ab 3.4Ab 0.1 <0.001 <0.001 0.978
Puppies 3.4Ba 2.8Bb 2.9b 3.0b 2.9Bb 2.9Bb 0.1
pH Adults 6.05Aa 5.89Ab 5.83Ab 5.86Ab 6.86Ab 6.87Ab 0.05 <0.001 <0.001 0.712
Puppies 5.86Ba 5.59Bb 5.58Bb 5.61Bb 6.60Bb 6.60Ba 0.05
NH32 Adults 4.32Ba 3.92Bb 3.75Bb 3.74Bb 3.88Bb 4.41Ba 0.06 <0.001 <0.001 0.354
Puppies 5.49Aa 5.23Ab 5.10Ab 5.16Ab 5.05Ab 5.62Aa 0.07
Wfo1 Adults 0.43b 0.62a 0.62a 0.59a 0.60a 0.59a 0.02 <0.001 0.858 0.503
Puppies 0.44b 0.59a 0.62a 0.59a 0.60a 0.64a 0.02
Dfo1 Adults 0.17 0.19 0.18 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.01 0.068 0.892 0.621
Puppies 0.16 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.02
A,BMeans in the same column followed by different capital letters are different (P < 0.05).
a,bMeans in the same row followed by different small letters are different (P < 0.05).
1DSM = defatted soybean meal; SBM = soybean meal; MSB = micronized soybeans; TSB = toasted soybeans; RSB = raw soybeans; Wfo = wet fecal output (g)/DMI (g); Dfo = dry fecal output (g)/DMI (g).
2g/kg DM.