View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Analyzed nutrient composition (as-fed basis) of soybean meal (SBM), dried fermentation biomass (DFB), hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products (PEP50 and PEP2+), and fish meal1,2

 
Ingredient
Item SBM DFB PEP50 PEP2+ Fish meal
DM, % 88.8 92.2 94.7 95.2 92.3
GE, kcal/kg 3,767 5,369 4,630 4,934 4,328
CP (N × 6.25), % 49.51 77.17 53.63 59.54 64.22
Acid-hydrolyzed fat, % 1.77 10.55 7.39 13.14 7.26
ADF, % 4.38 0.03 3.57 1.39
NDF, % 6.88 1.27 5.83 2.51
Ash, % 6.34 9.66 10.08 12.00 19.98
Total P, % 0.88 0.74 0.80 3.25
Indispensable AA, %
    Arg 3.42 4.36 3.13 3.47 3.65
    His 1.29 1.69 1.19 1.35 1.43
    Ile 2.24 3.57 2.21 2.62 2.60
    Leu 3.60 6.02 3.82 4.52 4.34
    Lys 2.96 7.94 3.59 4.86 4.76
    Met 0.63 1.75 0.80 1.09 1.68
    Phe 2.36 2.92 2.23 2.48 2.33
    Thr 1.71 3.01 1.81 2.27 2.36
    Trp 0.65 1.00 0.47 0.49 0.64
    Val 2.39 4.51 2.63 3.22 3.06
Dispensable AA, %
    Ala 1.98 4.84 2.47 3.24 3.80
    Asp 5.07 6.83 4.77 5.41 5.31
    Cys 0.64 0.52 0.61 0.71 0.46
    Glu 8.18 7.71 7.09 7.53 7.62
    Gly 1.92 3.30 2.41 3.01 4.33
    Pro 2.38 2.35 2.33 2.67 2.88
    Ser 1.81 1.99 1.67 1.89 1.93
    Tyr 1.67 2.41 1.62 2.01 1.85
1Mean of duplicate analyses of each ingredient.
2Dried fermentation biomass was obtained from Ajinomoto Heartland Inc., Chicago, IL; PEP50 and PEP2+ were sourced from TechMix, Stewart, MN; and fish meal was a Menhaden Select fish meal that was procured from Omega Protein Corp., Houston, TX. Soybean meal was obtained locally from the University of Illinois Feed Mill, Champaign, IL.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Ingredient composition (as-fed basis) of experimental diets containing soybean meal (SBM), dried fermentation biomass (DFB), hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products (PEP50 and PEP2+), or fish meal (Exp. 1)1

 
Diet
Item SBM DFB PEP50 PEP2+ Fish meal N-free
Ingredient, %
SBM 42.00 21.00 21.00 21.00 21.00
DFB 13.00
PEP50 19.00
PEP2+ 17.00
Fish meal 16.00
Soybean oil 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 4.00
Solka-Floc2 1.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 3.00
Dicalcium phosphate 1.30 1.50 1.50 1.50 2.00
Limestone 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.80
Sugar 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 20.00
Chromic oxide 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
Corn starch 35.60 42.40 36.40 38.40 42.90 68.60
Magnesium oxide 0.10
Potassium carbonate 0.40
Salt 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
Vitamin-mineral premix3 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
1Dried fermentation biomass was obtained from Ajinomoto Heartland Inc., Chicago, IL; PEP50 and PEP2+ were sourced from TechMix, Stewart, MN; and fish meal was a Menhaden Select fish meal that was procured from Omega Protein Corp., Houston, TX. Soybean meal was obtained locally from the University of Illinois Feed Mill, Champaign, IL.
2Fiber Sales and Development Corp., Urbana, OH.
3Provided the following quantities of vitamins per kilogram of complete diet: vitamin A as retinyl acetate, 11,128 IU; vitamin D3 as cholecalciferol, 2,204 IU; vitamin E as DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate, 66 IU; vitamin K as menadione nicotinamide bisulfite, 1.42 mg; thiamin as thiamine mononitrate, 0.24 mg; riboflavin, 6.58 mg; pyridoxine as pyridoxine hydrochloride, 0.24 mg; vitamin B12, 0.03 mg; D-pantothenic acid as D-calcium pantothenate, 23.5 mg; niacin as nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, 44 mg; folic acid, 1.58 mg; biotin, 0.44 mg; Cu as copper sulfate, 10 mg; Fe as iron sulfate, 125 mg; I as potassium iodate, 1.26 mg; Mn as manganese sulfate, 60 mg; Se as sodium selenite, 0.3 mg; and Zn as zinc oxide, 100 mg.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Analyzed nutrient composition (as-fed basis) of experimental diets containing soybean meal (SBM), dried fermentation biomass (DFB), hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products (PEP50 and PEP2+), or fish meal (Exp. 1)1,2

 
Diet
Item SBM DFB PEP50 PEP2+ Fish meal
DM, % 91.52 92.49 92.68 92.89 91.57
CP (N × 6.25), % 22.88 22.23 20.96 20.87 19.31
Indispensable AA, %
    Arg 1.42 1.19 1.34 1.25 1.02
    His 0.53 0.46 0.51 0.47 0.40
    Ile 0.91 0.86 0.89 0.88 0.70
    Leu 1.52 1.46 1.53 1.49 1.16
    Lys 1.24 1.55 1.33 1.40 1.10
    Met 0.27 0.33 0.28 0.29 0.31
    Phe 0.99 0.83 0.94 0.89 0.70
    Thr 0.73 0.73 0.75 0.73 0.59
    Trp 0.27 0.25 0.22 0.19 0.19
    Val 0.98 1.00 0.99 1.01 0.77
Dispensable AA, %
    Ala 0.85 1.00 0.93 0.97 0.82
    Asp 2.15 1.87 2.04 1.94 1.53
    Cys 0.26 0.18 0.24 0.23 0.17
    Glu 3.51 2.64 3.23 2.98 2.40
    Gly 0.83 0.79 0.90 0.91 0.87
    Pro 0.95 0.78 0.98 0.92 0.77
    Ser 0.81 0.62 0.77 0.69 0.56
    Tyr 0.61 0.54 0.61 0.59 0.45
1Mean of duplicate analyses of each diet.
2Dried fermentation biomass was obtained from Ajinomoto Heartland Inc., Chicago, IL; PEP50 and PEP2+ were sourced from TechMix, Stewart, MN; and fish meal was a Menhaden Select fish meal that was procured from Omega Protein Corp., Houston, TX. Soybean meal was obtained locally from the University of Illinois Feed Mill, Champaign.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Ingredient composition (as-fed basis) of experimental diets containing corn, dried fermentation biomass (DFB), hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products (PEP50 and PEP2+), or fish meal (Exp. 2)1

 
Diet
Item Corn DFB PEP50 PEP2+ Fish meal
Ingredient, %
Corn 96.40 80.40 73.40 76.40 81.30
DFB 16.00
PEP50 23.00
PEP2+ 20.00
Fish meal 18.00
Dicalcium phosphate 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70
Limestone 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20
Salt 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
Vitamin-micromineral premix2 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Analyzed composition3
    DM, % 86.29 85.80 86.89 86.53 85.93
    GE, kcal/kg 3,670 3,937 3,899 3,880 3,866
1Dried fermentation biomass was obtained from Ajinomoto Heartland Inc., Chicago, IL; PEP50 and PEP2+ were sourced from TechMix, Stewart, MN; and fish meal was a Menhaden Select fish meal that was procured from Omega Protein Corp., Houston, TX. Corn was obtained locally from the University of Illinois Feed Mill, Champaign.
2Provided the following quantities of vitamins per kilogram of complete diet: vitamin A as retinyl acetate, 11,128 IU; vitamin D3 as cholecalciferol, 2,204 IU; vitamin E as DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate, 66 IU; vitamin K as menadione nicotinamide bisulfite, 1.42 mg; thiamin as thiamine mononitrate, 0.24 mg; riboflavin, 6.58 mg; pyridoxine as pyridoxine hydrochloride, 0.24 mg; vitamin B12, 0.03 mg; D-pantothenic acid as D-calcium pantothenate, 23.5 mg; niacin as nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, 44 mg; folic acid, 1.58 mg; biotin, 0.44 mg; Cu as copper sulfate, 10 mg; Fe as iron sulfate, 125 mg; I as potassium iodate, 1.26 mg; Mn as manganese sulfate, 60 mg; Se as sodium selenite, 0.3 mg; and Zn as zinc oxide, 100 mg.
3Mean of duplicate analyses of each diet.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Ingredient composition (as-fed basis) of experimental diets containing dried fermentation biomass (DFB), hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products (PEP50 and PEP2+), or fish meal (Exp. 3)1

 
Diet
Item DFB PEP50 PEP2+ Fish meal P-free
Ingredient, %
DFB 20.00
PEP50 20.00
PEP2+ 20.00
Fish meal 12.00
Gelatin2 20.00
Soybean oil 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 4.00
Solka-Floc3 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00
Ground limestone 0.80 0.80 0.80 1.60 0.80
Sucrose 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 20.00
Corn starch 56.50 56.50 56.50 64.70 49.72
Sodium chloride 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
Vitamin-micromineral premix4 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
AA mixture5 0.78
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Analyzed composition6
    DM, % 91.61 92.06 92.41 92.28 91.31
    Total P, % 0.21 0.17 0.20 0.39 0.01
1Dried fermentation biomass was obtained from Ajinomoto Heartland Inc., Chicago, IL; PEP50 and PEP2+ were sourced from TechMix, Stewart, MN; and fish meal was a Menhaden Select fish meal that was procured from Omega Protein Corp., Houston, TX.
2Pork gelatin obtained from Gelita Gelatin USA Inc., Sioux City, IA.
3Fiber Sales and Development Corp., Urbana, OH.
4The vitamin-micromineral premix provided the following quantities of vitamins and minerals per kilogram of complete diet: vitamin A as retinyl acetate, 11,128 IU; vitamin D3 as cholecalciferol, 2,204 IU; vitamin E as DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate, 66 IU; vitamin K as menadione nicotinamide bisulfite, 1.42 mg; thiamin as thiamine mononitrate, 0.24 mg; riboflavin, 6.58 mg; pyridoxine as pyridoxine hydrochloride, 0.24 mg; vitamin B12, 0.03 mg; D-pantothenic acid as D-calcium pantothenate, 23.5 mg; niacin as nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, 44 mg; folic acid, 1.58 mg; biotin, 0.44 mg; Cu as copper sulfate, 10 mg; Fe as iron sulfate, 125 mg; I as potassium iodate, 1.26 mg; Mn as manganese sulfate, 60 mg; Se as sodium selenite, 0.3 mg; and Zn as zinc oxide, 100 mg.
5Provided the following quantities (%) of AA: DL-Met, 0.27; L-Thr, 0.08; L-Trp, 0.14; L-His, 0.08; L-Ile, 0.16; and L-Val, 0.05.
6Mean of duplicate analyses of each diet.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Apparent ileal digestibility (%) of CP and AA in soybean meal (SBM), dried fermentation biomass (DFB), hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products (PEP50 and PEP2+), and fish meal by weanling pigs (Exp. 1)1, 2

 
Ingredient
Item SBM DFB PEP50 PEP2+ Fish meal SEM P-value
CP, % 84.6a 81.7ab 72.7cd 66.7d 77.2bc 2.4 < 0.001
Indispensable AA, %
    Arg 93.0a 88.0b 88.7b 83.7c 85.6bc 1.7 <0.001
    His 90.3a 86.5ab 83.4b 76.6c 85.3b 1.5 <0.001
    Ile 88.7a 85.6ab 84.6b 79.9c 85.3ab 1.4 0.001
    Leu 88.7a 87.1a 85.7a 81.2b 85.9a 1.4 0.003
    Lys 89.0ab 92.0a 85.1bc 81.9c 83.9c 1.7 <0.001
    Met 90.5a 86.7b 87.2b 82.2c 85.6b 1.2 <0.001
    Phe 88.7a 83.3b 84.0b 78.3c 83.9b 1.5 <0.001
    Thr 82.2a 81.9a 77.1a 71.2b 80.9a 1.8 <0.001
    Trp 90.2 91.2 88.5 87.7 86.3 1.4 0.11
    Val 85.9a 84.1a 82.8a 78.4b 82.7a 1.5 0.01
Dispensable AA, %
    Ala 83.2 81.2 82.1 77.4 79.8 1.8 0.13
    Asp 87.4a 80.8b 76.9bc 68.3d 75.9c 1.8 <0.001
    Cys 79.9a 61.0bc 49.6c 35.1d 71.4ab 4.2 <0.001
    Glu 90.2a 82.3bc 75.8cd 73.0d 84.7ab 2.2 <0.001
    Gly 76.8a 66.5b 64.6b 59.3b 68.9ab 4.0 0.01
    Ser 87.0a 78.3b 80.7b 72.1c 80.0b 1.9 <0.001
    Tyr 86.8a 82.3bc 84.8ab 80.1c 84.4ab 1.5 0.02
    All AA 85.9a 79.0b 75.7b 71.8c 77.4b 2.3 <0.001
a−dRow means that do not have a common superscript letter differ, P < 0.05.
1Data are least squares means with 12 observations per treatment.
2Dried fermentation biomass was obtained from Ajinomoto Heartland Inc., Chicago, IL; PEP50 and PEP2+ were sourced from TechMix, Stewart, MN; and fish meal was a Menhaden Select fish meal that was procured from Omega Protein Corp., Houston, TX.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Standardized ileal digestibility (%) of CP and AA in soybean meal (SBM), dried fermentation biomass (DFB), hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products (PEP50 and PEP2+), and fish meal by weanling pigs (Exp. 1)1,2,3

 
Ingredient
Item SBM DFB PEP50 PEP2+ Fish meal SEM P-value
CP, % 93.9a 91.8a 84.1bc 78.2c 90.0ab 2.5 <0.001
Indispensable AA, %
    Arg 98.9a 96.6a 95.5a 91.5b 96.6a 1.7 0.007
    His 93.6a 91.1ab 87.2b 81.0c 91.1ab 1.5 <0.001
    Ile 91.8a 89.0a 87.9a 83.3b 90.3a 1.4 0.001
    Leu 91.5a 90.3a 88.6a 84.2b 90.6a 1.4 0.002
    Lys 91.7ab 93.8a 87.5bc 84.1c 87.2c 1.7 <0.001
    Met 92.5a 88.1b 89.1b 83.9c 87.2b 1.2 <0.001
    Phe 91.5a 87.3b 87.1b 81.8c 89.2ab 1.5 <0.001
    Thr 88.8a 88.6ab 83.5b 78.1c 90.6a 1.8 <0.001
    Trp 93.7 95.3 94.1 95.3 93.2 1.4 0.76
    Val 90.3a 88.5a 87.2a 82.8b 89.6a 1.5 0.006
Dispensable AA, %
    Ala 90.7a 86.9ab 88.5a 83.4b 87.7ab 1.8 0.04
    Asp 90.6a 85.1b 80.6b 72.4c 82.0b 1.8 <0.001
    Cys 86.4a 76.5a 57.5b 43.6c 87.7a 4.2 <0.001
    Glu 92.5a 86.8a 78.7b 76.4b 89.6a 2.2 <0.001
    Gly 100.3a 92.9ab 85.2bc 79.7c 90.7b 4.0 0.002
    Ser 92.7a 88.5ab 87.2b 80.1c 91.3ab 1.9 <0.001
    Tyr 90.5a 87.1ab 88.6a 84.2b 91.0a 1.5 0.01
    All AA 95.5a 91.4ab 86.7bc 83.6c 93.8ab 2.3 <0.001
a−cRow means that do not have a common superscript letter differ, P < 0.05.
1Data are least squares means with 12 observations per treatment.
2Dried fermentation biomass was obtained from Ajinomoto Heartland Inc., Chicago, IL; PEP50 and PEP2+ were sourced from TechMix, Stewart, MN; and fish meal was a Menhaden Select fish meal that was procured from Omega Protein Corp., Houston, TX.
3Standardized ileal digestibility values were calculated by correcting the values for apparent ileal digestibility for the basal ileal endogenous losses. Basal ileal endogenous losses were determined as (g/kg of DMI): CP, 23.35; Arg, 0.91; His, 0.19; Ile, 0.30; Leu, 0.48; Lys, 0.36; Met, 0.06; Phe, 0.30; Thr, 0.53; Trp, 0.10; Val, 0.48; Ala, 0.69; Asp, 0.75; Cys, 0.18; Glu, 0.89; Gly, 2.13; Pro, 9.68; Ser, 0.50; and Tyr, 0.25.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 8.

Digestibility of energy (ATTD, %) and DE and ME in corn, dried fermentation biomass (DFB), hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products (PEP50 and PEP2+), and fish meal fed to weanling pigs (Exp. 2)1,2

 
Ingredient
Item Corn DFB PEP50 PEP2+ Fish meal SEM P-value
ATTD of GE in diet, % 88.5 88.9 89.0 90.0 90.2 1.0 0.75
GE, kcal/kg DM 4,490 5,894 4,981 5,400 4,698
DE, kcal/kg DM 4,014c 5,445a 4,758b 4,935b 4,227c 156 <0.001
ME, kcal/kg DM 3,846c 5,236a 4,512b 4,617ab 3,960bc 218 <0.001
a−dRow means that do not have a common superscript letter differ, P < 0.05.
1Data are least squares means with 8 observations per treatment.
2Dried fermentation biomass was obtained from Ajinomoto Heartland Inc., Chicago, IL; PEP50 and PEP2+ were sourced from TechMix, Stewart, MN; and fish meal was a Menhaden Select fish meal that was procured from Omega Protein Corp., Houston, TX.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 9.

Daily intake and fecal output of P and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD, %) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD, %) of P in dried fermentation biomass (DFB), hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products (PEP50 and PEP2+), and fish meal fed to weanling pigs (Exp. 3)1,2

 
Ingredient
Item DFB PEP50 PEP2+ Fish meal SEM P-value
Feed intake, g/d 358b 458a 452a 412a 17 0.001
P intake, g/d 0.80c 0.82c 0.96b 1.77a 0.04 <0.001
Fecal output, g/d 18.8ab 24.0a 15.6b 24.3a 2.0 0.01
P output, g/d 0.08c 0.27b 0.09c 0.62a 0.03 <0.001
P absorbed, g/d 0.72c 0.56d 0.87b 1.15a 0.04 <0.001
ATTD of P, % 90.4a 68.0b 90.6a 65.5b 1.8 <0.001
STTD of P,3% 96.9a 76.2b 97.6a 68.5c 2.2 <0.001
a−dRow means that do not have a common superscript letter differ, P < 0.05.
1Data are least squares means with 8 observations per treatment.
2Dried fermentation biomass was obtained from Ajinomoto Heartland Inc., Chicago, IL; PEP50 and PEP2+ were sourced from TechMix, Stewart, MN; and fish meal was a Menhaden Select fish meal that was procured from Omega Protein Corp., Houston, TX.
3Values for STTD were calculated by correcting values of ATTD for basal endogenous loss of P. The basal endogenous loss of P was measured from pigs fed the P-free diet at 148 mg/kg of DMI.