View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Mean chemical composition of the 20 grains and control (mix of equal proportions of all 20 grain cultivars)

 
Grains NDF, % of DM CP, % of DM ADF, % of DM Total starch, % of DM Total insoluble NSP1, % of DM Total soluble NSP1, % of DM Arabinoxylans, % of DM Beta-glucans, % of DM
Control (mixed) 17.6 13.5 6.80 62.7 12.0 1.20 6.70 1.40
Barley (Binnalong) 24.1 19.4 6.20 56.5 10.2 3.50 6.30 3.90
Barley (Gairdner 3862) 19.4 9.40 5.10 66.0 9.01 2.80 5.30 3.60
Barley (Tantangara) 19.5 11.5 4.70 64.7 8.70 3.20 5.10 4.10
Barley (Gairdner 3864) 20.8 15.6 4.50 61.2 8.90 3.50 5.70 4.20
Oats (Swan) 32.6 13.2 16.8 36.1 27.5 2.80 14.4 3.00
Oats (Dalyup 5817) 33.6 11.7 16.1 37.3 26.0 2.60 14.1 3.20
Oats (Dalyup 5818) 26.2 11.2 13.0 42.7 24.9 2.70 15.0 3.40
Sorghum (Liberty) 13.4 13.5 5.40 79.3 6.30 0.00 2.10 0.00
Sorghum (Pacer) 11.4 13.1 5.60 80.1 4.20 0.00 1.90 0.00
Sorghum (MR43) 13.1 13.9 5.20 75.4 5.80 0.00 1.10 0.00
Triticale (Maiden) 15.3 18.2 3.50 65.2 7.70 0.20 4.70 0.10
Triticale (Jackie 6823) 8.60 12.1 3.10 72.3 6.10 0.60 4.80 1.50
Triticale (Jackie 6824) 13.9 14.1 2.70 69.1 7.00 0.60 4.20 0.40
Triticale (Prime 322) 13.3 11.2 3.20 71.2 7.70 0.40 5.30 0.30
Wheat (Bellaroi) 13.6 20.8 3.20 66.3 7.50 0.00 5.50 0.00
Wheat (Sentinal) 14.1 14.3 2.70 70.3 6.40 0.60 4.20 0.60
Wheat (Ammrock) 11.5 15.9 2.30 70.8 6.00 0.40 3.90 0.50
Wheat (Kellalac) 11.0 14.6 2.50 70.5 6.50 0.90 4.10 1.00
Wheat (unknown) 12.0 10.9 3.20 71.7 8.10 0.60 5.30 0.30
Wheat (Chara) 12.1 12.4 2.50 73.0 6.80 0.90 4.70 0.50
1NSP = nonstarch polysaccharide.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Statistics for near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for acidosis index developed from whole and milled grain scans1

 
Calibration n Mean SD RSQ SEC 1-VR SECV RPD
Whole grain scans 86 44.8 22.5 0.93 7.02 0.86 8.46 2.66
Milled grain scans 86 44.8 22.5 0.86 8.55 0.82 9.62 2.34
1Mean = the mean predicted acidosis index value (% units); RSQ = R2 values – fraction of the variance accounted for by the NIRS calibration when all accepted observations are included in the relationship; SEC = SE of the calibration; 1-VR = 1-variance ratio – fraction of variance accounted for in NIRS prediction when some observations are used for “cross-validation” of the calibration as determined by the NIRS software; SECV = SE of cross-validation – SE of the calibration when some observations are used for “cross-validation” of the calibration as determined by the NIRS software; RPD = ratio of prediction to deviation = SD/SECV, an indication of the value of the calibration.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Proportion of different particle sizes of rolled grains

 
Grains 3.5-mm sieve, % 2.0-mm sieve, % <2.0-mm sieve, %
Oats (Dalyup 5817) 99.2 0.4 0.4
Oats (Dalyup 5818) 99.2 0.4 0.4
Oats (Swan) 99 0.5 0.5
Barley (Tantangara) 97 2 1
Wheat (Bellaroi) 30 60 10
Wheat (Sentinal) 60 35 5
Wheat (Ammrock) 65 30 5
Wheat (Kellalac) 77 20 3
Wheat (unknown) 65 32 3
Wheat (Chara) 82 15 3
Barley (Gairdner 3864) 98 1 1
Barley (Gairdner 3862) 98 1 1
Barley (Binnalong) 97 2 1
Triticale (Maiden) 92 7 1
Triticale (Jackie 6823) 91 8 1
Triticale (Jackie 6824) 89 10 1
Triticale (Prime 322) 84 15 1
Sorghum (Liberty) 4 94 2
Sorghum (Pacer) 19 80 1
Sorghum (MR43) 10 80 10
Control mixed grain 86 11 3



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Chemical composition of ryegrass silage

 
Method development study
In vivo study
Item, % of DM Adaptation Challenge Adaptation Challenge
DM 41.8 39.0 57.9 52.9
NDF 57.4 54.1 52.8 52.3
CP 14.2 15.9 17.5 16.0
Soluble protein, % of CP 56.8 63.0 49.8 52.5
Crude fat 3.90 4.60 3.95 4.33
Ash 8.95 10.7 13.5 14.1
Ca 0.58 0.80 0.77 0.79
P 0.32 0.40 0.26 0.29
Mg 0.22 0.20 0.29 0.25
K 2.96 3.40 2.42 3.05
S 0.21 0.20 0.27 0.25
Cl 1.16 1.40 1.33 1.82
ADF 37.8 36.1 36.2 36.0
Acid detergent insoluble CP 1.03 1.00 1.30 1.53
Neutral detergent insoluble CP 2.77 2.60 4.10 3.35
Lignin 5.03 4.60 5.63 5.00
Nonfiber carbohydrates 18.4 17.3 16.4 16.7
Nonstructural carbohydrates 11.1 8.50 10.2 12.3
ME, MJ/kg 7.77 9.10 9.15 9.08
Available protein 13.1 14.9 16.2 14.5
Adjusted CP 14.2 15.9 17.5 15.5
Degradable protein, % of CP 70.3 70.0 66.0 67.8
Starch 2.27 2.80 1.63 2.28
Sugar 8.90 5.60 8.60 9.95
Lys 0.46 0.50 0.58 0.53
Met 0.17 0.20 0.21 0.20



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Significance (P-values) for effect of time1, grain rate2, type of grain (mixed vs. triticale), and their interactions on rumen fermentation products in the method development study (n of heifers = 16; n of samples = 80)

 
Item Time (T) Rate (R) Grain (G) T × R T × G R × G T × R × G
Rumen pH 0.77 0.01 0.35 0.28 0.50 0.40 0.84
Total VFA 0.80 0.18 0.20 0.02 0.78 0.74 0.39
Acetate 0.43 0.32 0.20 0.06 0.74 0.75 0.33
Propionate 0.98 0.01 0.07 <0.01 0.92 0.84 0.51
Butyrate 0.32 0.37 0.46 0.03 0.89 0.60 0.64
Isobutyrate 0.91 0.14 0.94 0.56 0.57 0.78 0.29
Valerate <0.01 <0.01 0.05 <0.01 0.05 0.89 0.66
Isovalerate 0.95 0.29 0.87 <0.01 0.41 0.70 0.70
Caproate 0.86 0.66 0.74 0.21 0.76 0.67 0.80
Acetate:propionate 0.24 0.06 0.62 0.09 0.84 0.95 0.48
D-lactate 0.08 0.40 0.83 0.35 0.77 0.64 0.95
L-lactate 0.06 0.66 0.66 0.72 0.37 0.42 0.52
Ammonia 0.04 0.20 0.27 <0.01 <0.01 0.79 0.23
1Rumen samples were collected 5, 65, 110, 155, and 200 min after diet consumption.
2Grain was fed at 0, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.2% of BW.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Estimated marginal means ± SEM of rumen fermentation products over 5 time periods (5, 65, 110, 155, and 200 min after diet consumption) for cattle fed 2 grains (mixed vs. triticale) at 4 rates in the method development study

 
Rate
Grain
Item Control (0 kg) 0.4% of BW (2 to 3 kg) 0.8% of BW (4 to 6 kg) 1.2% of BW (6 to 8 kg) SEM Control (mixed grain) Triticale Jackie SEM
No. of heifers 4 4 4 4 8 8
Rumen pH 7.21a 7.12ab 7.03b 6.99b 0.03 7.07 7.08 0.02
Variable, mM
Total VFA 59.1 62.0 74.7 76.1 5.45 66.2 71.6 3.85
Acetate 45.1 45.6 54.0 54.5 4.15 48.0 52.3 2.93
Propionate 7.99a 8.85a 11.6b 12.8b 0.74 10.1 11.0 0.53
Butyrate 4.24 5.67 6.52 6.20 0.75 5.78 5.92 0.53
Isobutyrate 0.53 0.49 0.62 0.63 0.04 0.58 0.57 0.03
Valerate 0.31a 0.46ab 0.81bc 0.88c 0.07 0.61A 0.69B 0.05
Isovalerate 0.76 0.78 0.98 1.05 0.10 0.93 0.90 0.07
Caproate 0.08 0.12 0.17 0.12 0.04 0.13 0.13 0.03
Acetate:propionate 5.67 5.22 4.64 4.28 0.26 4.80 4.89 0.19
L-lactate 0.16 0.08 0.07 0.01 0.12 0.06 0.07 0.09
D-lactate 0.13 0.12 0.16 0.08 0.07 0.13 0.11 0.05
Ammonia 3.96 4.47 6.75 6.09 0.85 5.15 5.78 0.60
a−cMeans of rates with different superscripts are significantly different P = 0.05.
A,BThe mean of the control is significantly different from the mean of triticale cultivar Jackie.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Significance (P-values) of effect of time1, day2, grain3, and their interactions on rumen fermentation products in the in vivo study (n of heifers = 80; n of samples = 400)

 
Parameter, mM Time (T) Day (D) Grain (G) T × D T × G
Rumen pH, no units 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.009 0.83
Total VFA 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.98 0.51
Acetate 0.07 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
Propionate 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.99 0.32
Butyrate 0.001 0.001 0.001 1.00 1.00
Isobutyrate 0.033 0.001 0.001 0.68 0.33
Valerate 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.84 0.001
Isovalerate 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.92 0.001
Caproate 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.71 0.84
Acetate:propionate 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.84 0.17
L-lactate 0.025 0.001 0.001 0.99 0.89
D-lactate 0.010 0.001 0.001 1.00 0.98
Ammonia 0.001 0.001 0.001 1.00 0.049
1Rumen samples were collected 5, 65, 110, 155, and 200 min after challenge ration consumption.
2Heifers were sampled on 1 of 8 d.
3The 20 grain cultivars were oats (n = 3; Dalyup 5817, Dalyup 5818, and Swan), wheat (n = 6; Bellaroi, Sentinal, Ammrock, Kellalac, unknown, and Chara), barley (n = 4; Tantangara, Gairdner 3864, Gairdner 3862, and Binnalong), triticale (n = 4; Maiden, Jackie 6823, Jackie 6824, and Prime 322), and sorghum (n = 3; Liberty, Pacer, and MR43).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 8.

Acidosis rankings of 20 grain cultivars estimated from near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS), discriminant scores, and coefficients of rumen valerate

 
Grain NIRS Discriminant Valerate2
Barley (Tantangara) 15 15 11
Barley (Gairdner 3864) 5 13 13
Barley (Gairdner 3862) 4 11 14
Barley (Binnalong) 12 16 12
Oats (Dalyup 5817) 17 17 15
Oats (Dalyup 5818) 18 14 19
Oats (Swan) 16 12 16
Sorghum (Liberty) 14 18 20
Sorghum (Pacer) 19 19 17
Sorghum (MR43) 20 20 18
Triticale (Maiden) 13 6 7
Triticale (Jackie 6823) 6 1 6
Triticale (Jackie 6824) 7 5 2
Triticale (Prime 322) 9 9 9
Wheat (Bellaroi) 11 8 1
Wheat (Sentinal) 10 2 3
Wheat (Ammrock) 8 10 5
Wheat (Kellalac) 2 3 4
Wheat (unknown) 3 7 10
Wheat (Chara) 1 4 8
Control mixed grain NA1 10 12
1Not available.
2Ranking based on valerate concentrations from the 200 min rumen sampling on challenge day



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 9.

Statistics for revised near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy calibrations for acidosis index developed from whole and milled grain scans1

 
Calibration n Mean SD RSQ SEC 1-VR SECV RPD
Whole grain scans 86 48.0 19.8 0.90 6.15 0.88 6.93 2.86
Milled grain scans 86 48.1 19.9 0.87 7.12 0.81 8.59 2.32
1Mean = the mean predicted acidosis index value (% units); RSQ = R2 values – fraction of the variance accounted for by the NIRS calibration when all accepted observations are included in the relationship; SEC = SE of the calibration; 1-VR = 1-variance ratio – fraction of variance accounted for in NIRS prediction when some observations are used for “cross-validation” of the calibration as determined by the NIRS software; SECV = SE of cross-validation – SE of the calibration when some observations are used for “cross-validation” of the calibration as determined by the NIRS software; RPD = ratio of prediction to deviation = SD/SECV, an indication of the value of the calibration.