View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Ingredient composition (DM basis) and analyzed nutrient content of steam-flaked corn-based receiving diets with either 0, 12.5, 25.0, or 37.5% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS; DM basis) fed to beef steers during Exp. 1

 
Treatment1
Item CON 12.5% WDGS 25.0% WDGS 37.5% WDGS
Ingredient
    Steam-flaked corn 45.00 41.44 34.66 23.21
    WDGS - 12.50 25.00 37.50
    Alfalfa hay 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50
    Cottonseed hulls 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50
    Cottonseed meal 9.15 5.00
    Molasses 4.00
    Yellow grease 3.35 2.36 1.55 0.78
    Supplement2 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
    Limestone 1.00 1.15 1.15 1.15
    Urea 0.50 0.55 0.64 0.36
Analyzed composition,3 %
    DM 84.5 72.9 64.0 56.6
    CP 14.4 15.9 17.5 20.3
    ADF 22.0 24.1 24.6 23.1
    Ether extract 5.5 6.2 6.4 7.1
    Ca 0.69 0.68 0.69 0.61
    P 0.31 0.34 0.35 0.42
    K 1.33 1.15 1.17 1.10
    S 0.24 0.24 0.34 0.39
1CON = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet without WDGS; 12.5% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 12.5% WDGS; 25% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 25.0% WDGS; 37.5% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 37.5% WDGS.
2Diets were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient National Research Council (1996) requirements. Supplement for the CON diet consisted of (DM basis): 66.476% cottonseed meal; 0.500% Endox (Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA); 0.648% dicalcium phosphate; 10.000% potassium chloride; 4.167% ammonium sulfate; 15.000% sodium chloride; 0.002% cobalt carbonate; 0.196% copper sulfate; 0.083% iron sulfate; 0.003% ethylenediamine dihydroiodide; 0.333% manganous oxide; 0.125% selenium premix (0.2% Se); 0.986% zinc sulfate; 0.010% vitamin A (1,000,000 IU/g; DSM Nutritional Products, Inc., Parsippany, NJ); 0.157% vitamin E (500 IU/g; DSM Nutritional Products, Inc.); 0.750% Rumensin (176.4 mg/kg; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN); and 0.563% Tylan (88.2 mg/kg; Elanco Animal Health). Supplement for the 12.5, 25.0, and 37.5% WDGS diets consisted of (DM basis): 54.883% cottonseed meal; 0.500% Endox (Kemin Industries); 0.648% dicalcium phosphate; 10.000% potassium chloride; 3.760% urea; 15.000% sodium chloride; 0.002% cobalt carbonate; 0.196% copper sulfate; 0.083% iron sulfate; 0.003% ethylenediamine dihydroiodide; 0.333% manganous oxide; 0.125% selenium premix (0.2% Se); 0.986% zinc sulfate; 0.010% vitamin A (1,000,000 IU/g; DSM Nutritional Products, Inc.); 0.157% vitamin E (500 IU/g; DSM Nutritional Products, Inc.); 0.750% Rumensin (176.4 mg/kg; Elanco Animal Health); and 0.563% Tylan (88.2 mg/kg; Elanco Animal Health).
3Analyzed composition from SDK Laboratories, Hutchinson, KS.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Ingredient composition (DM basis) and analyzed nutrient content of steam-flaked corn-based receiving diets with either 0, 12.5, 25.0, or 37.5% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS; DM basis) fed to beef steers during Exp. 2

 
Treatment1
Item CON 12.5% WDGS 25.0% WDGS 37.5% WDGS
Ingredient
    Steam-flaked corn 45.50 42.09 35.31 23.85
    WDGS 12.50 25.00 37.50
    Alfalfa hay 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50
    Cottonseed hulls 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50
    Cottonseed meal 9.15 5.00
    Molasses 4.00
    Yellow grease 3.35 2.38 1.57 0.81
    Supplement2 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
    Urea 0.50 0.53 0.62 0.34
Analyzed composition3
    DM, % 88.6 76.1 66.2 58.7
    CP, % 14.0 16.0 17.8 20.3
    ADF, % 21.2 22.5 23.5 25.3
    Ether extract, % 6.0 6.4 7.0 7.5
    Ca, % 0.88 0.83 0.82 0.83
    P, % 0.25 0.30 0.34 0.43
    K, % 1.11 1.01 1.04 1.13
    S, % 0.19 0.21 0.25 0.30
1CON = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet without WDGS; 12.5% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 12.5% WDGS; 25.0% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 25.0% WDGS; 37.5% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 37.5% WDGS.
2Diets were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient National Research Council (1996) requirements. Supplement consisted of (DM basis): 25.000% wheat midds; 11.150% salt; 57.320% calcium carbonate; 0.664% ferrous sulfate; 1.000% soybean oil; 0.027 ethylenediamine dihydroiodide; 0.136% zinc sulfate; 0.031% manganese sulfate; 0.063% copper sulfate; 0.021 vitamin A-D3 (Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN); 0.118% vitamin E (Cargill Animal Nutrition); 2.500% ROC technology premix (Cargill Animal Nutrition); 1.071% BeefMax (Cargill Animal Nutrition); 0.730% Rumensin (176.4 mg/kg; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN), and 0.180% Tylan (88.2 mg/kg; Elanco Animal Health).
3Analyzed composition from SDK Laboratories, Hutchinson, KS.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Analyzed nutrient content (DM basis) of steam-flaked corn-based in vitro substrates with 0, 12.5, 25.0, or 37.5% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS; DM basis) used in Exp. 3

 
Treatment2
Item1 CON 12.5% WDGS 25% WDGS 37.5% WDGS
DM, % 89.9 90.6 90.3 90.3
CP, % 14.3 15.5 16.8 19.0
ADF, % 19.7 20.6 22.9 23.6
NDF, % 29.5 30.7 33.6 36.4
Ether extract, % 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.4
Ca, % 0.73 0.77 0.79 0.80
P, % 0.27 0.30 0.32 0.37
K, % 1.38 1.26 1.22 1.34
1Analyzed composition from SDK Laboratories, Hutchinson, KS.
2CON = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet without WDGS; 12.5% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 12.5% WDGS; 25.0% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 25.0% WDGS; 37.5% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 37.5% WDGS.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Effects of steam-flaked corn-based receiving diets with 0, 12.5, 25.0, or 37.7% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS; DM basis) on performance by newly received steer calves in Exp. 1

 
Treatment1
Item CON 12.5% WDGS 25.0% WDGS 37.5% WDGS SE2 P-value3
No. of pens 6 6 6 6
Initial BW, kg 211 208 209 209 2.2 0.78
d 35 BW, kg 253 250 249 251 2.1 0.61
ADG, kg
    d 0 to 14 1.56 1.47 1.51 1.43 0.117 0.88
    d 0 to 35 1.20 1.21 1.15 1.20 0.047 0.75
DMI, kg/(steer∙d)
    Hay (d 0 to 7 only) 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
    Concentrate
        d 0 to 14 4.14 4.10 4.05 4.02 0.119 0.91
        d 0 to 35 6.05 5.87 5.91 5.86 0.138 0.75
G:F
    d 0 to 14 0.37 0.36 0.37 0.35 0.020 0.89
    d 0 to 35 0.20 0.21 0.19 0.21 0.005 0.35
1CON = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet without WDGS; 12.5% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 12.5% WDGS; 25.0% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 25.0% WDGS; 37.5% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 37.5% WDGS.
2Pooled SE of the treatment means.
3Observed significance level for the F-test of treatment effects.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Effects of steam-flaked corn-based receiving diets with 0, 12.5, 25.0, or 37.7% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS; DM basis) on performance by newly received steer calves in Exp. 2

 
Treatment1
Item CON 12.5% WDGS 25.0% WDGS 37.5% WDGS SE2 P-value3
No. of pens 5 5 5 5 - -
Initial BW, kg 185 185 188 186 3.2 0.76
d 42 BW, kg 223 225 228 222 3.9 0.72
ADG, kg
    d 0 to 21 1.18 1.14 1.10 1.04 0.193 0.93
    d 0 to 42 0.90 0.97 0.94 0.87 0.102 0.77
DMI, kg/(steer∙d)
    Hay (d 0 to 7 only) 0.680 0.680 0.680 0.680 - -
    Concentrate
        d 0 to 21 3.87 3.77 4.03 3.81 0.137 0.57
        d 0 to 42 4.98 5.07 5.24 4.92 0.113 0.27
G:F
    d 0 to 21 0.30 0.30 0.27 0.27 0.047 0.88
    d 0 to 42 0.18 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.020 0.93
1CON = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet without WDGS; 12.5% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 12.5% WDGS; 25.0% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 25.0% WDGS; 37.5% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 37.5% WDGS.
2Pooled SE of the treatment means.
3Observed significance level for the F-test of treatment effects.



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Effects of steam-flaked corn-based receiving diets with 0, 12.5, 25.0, and 37.5% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS; DM basis) on in vitro total gas production, DM disappearance (IVDMD), molar proportions of VFA, and total VFA concentration, and the acetate:propionate ratio (A:P) in Exp. 3

 
Treatment1
Contrast P-value3
Item CON 12.5% WDGS 25.0% WDGS 37.5% WDGS SE2 CON vs. D Linear Quadratic
Gas production, mL/g of substrate DM 172 165 160 144 3.5 0.03 0.01 0.28
IVDMD, %
    6 h 38.8 37.7 40.1 44.9 0.47 0.03 0.01 0.01
    12 h 48.1 48.4 51.8 52.0 0.72 0.05 0.02 0.93
    18 h 57.7 58.3 61.3 60.0 1.44 0.29 0.23 0.54
    24 h 64.2 64.8 65.5 64.8 1.65 0.69 0.76 0.71
    36 h 69.0 70.3 71.2 70.1 0.47 0.06 0.14 0.08
    48 h 72.4 72.6 75.3 71.6 0.60 0.38 0.95 0.05
VFA, mol/100 mol
    Acetate 59.9 59.4 59.3 59.1 0.26 0.13 0.11 0.68
    Propionate 22.9 23.3 23.4 23.3 0.32 0.31 0.42 0.50
    Isobutyrate 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.03 0.36 0.50 0.73
    Butyrate 13.1 13.1 13.2 13.4 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.16
    Isovalerate 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.9 0.03 0.61 0.69 0.64
    Valerate 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.8 0.03 0.08 0.03 0.37
    Total VFA, mM 126.6 125.0 123.2 120.5 1.51 0.12 0.06 0.75
    A:P 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5 0.05 0.25 0.31 0.56
1CON = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet without WDGS; 12.5% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 12.5% WDGS; 25.0% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 25.0% WDGS; 37.5% WDGS = steam-flaked corn-based receiving diet with 37.5% WDGS.
2Pooled SE of the treatment means; n = 6 bottles per treatment (3 bottles on 2 separate d) for gas production and VFA data, and n = 4 tubes per treatment (2 tubes on 2 separate d) for IVDMD.
3P-values are the observed significance levels for contrasts: CON vs. 12.5, 25.0, and 37.5% WDGS inclusion (CON vs. D); and linear and quadratic effects of increasing concentrations of WDGS.