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Ethogram of pig behavior

 
Behavior Description
Balk Pig stops walking for more than 2 s
Backward After turning around, pig walks at least 2 steps in reverse
Vocalization Pig vocalizes
Overlap Pig mounts the back of another pig with its 2 front legs
Slip Leg of pig splits away from the other legs
Fall At least 2 legs buckle under the pig, with the stomach coming into contact with the floor



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Loading duration (mean s/pig ± SE) and electric prod use (mean frequency per loading group ± SE) by truck compartment in summer (June, July) and winter (January, February, March)

 
Loading duration (s/pig)
Prod use (mean/loading group)
Compartment Summer Winter Summer Winter
1 22.07 ± 2.97a 14.94 ± 3.25a 10.68 ± 1.31 7.56 ± 1.25
2 21.83 ± 2.46a 16.94 ± 2.64a 6.92 ± 1.28 5.97 ± 1.11
3 20.06 ± 2.49a 25.13 ± 2.68b 8.27 ± 1.40 8.96 ± 1.12
4 20.75 ± 4.14a 14.31 ± 4.53a 16.55 ± 1.73 6.16 ± 1.59
5 19.56 ± 2.97a 18.05 ± 3.25a,b 11.67 ± 1.49 6.79 ± 1.27
7 17.53 ± 2.45b 20.12 ± 2.68a,b 5.12 ± 1.36 7.40 ± 1.11
8 14.46 ± 2.97b 15.48 ± 3.25a 3.66 ± 1.54 4.97 ± 1.23
9 17.73 ± 2.49a,b 24.61 ± 2.68b 6.93 ± 1.36 8.70 ± 1.11
10 17.58 ± 2.45a,b 23.42 ± 2.68b 6.87 ± 1.39 6.96 ± 1.11
a,bWithin a column, least square means lacking a common superscripted letter differ; P < 0.05.



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Loading behavior (percentage of loading groups that included at least 1 pig performing the behavior ± SD) in the aisle and loading chute by season (summer: June, July; winter: January, February, March) and location within truck

 
Balk (aisle)
Slip (aisle)
Vocal (aisle)
Balk (chute)
Slip (chute)
Slip (ramp)
Vocal (ramp)
Compartment Summer Winter Summer Winter Summer Winter Summer Winter Summer Winter Summer Winter Summer Winter
1 29.2 ± 24.6 60.0 ± 28.5 0.0 ± 0.0 5.0 ± 11.1 41.7 ± 20.4 80.0 ± 32.6 100.0 ± 0.0 65.0 ± 28.5 83.3 ± 20.4 15.0 ± 22.4 79.2 ± 24.6 25.0 ± 17.7 100.0 ± 0.0 75.0 ± 35.4
2 50.0 ± 42.2 66.7 ± 23.6 0.0 ± 0.0 6.7 ± 9.1 41.7 ± 13.9 56.7 ± 9.1 97.2 ± 6.8 66.7 ± 31.2 77.8 ± 31.0 20.0 ± 7.5 72.2 ± 25.1 40.0 ± 25.3 97.2 ± 6.8 60.0 ± 41.8
3 52.8 ± 30.6 80.0 ± 18.3 0.0 ± 0.0 10.0 ± 9.1 77.8 ± 20.2 83.3 ± 11.8 100.0 ± 0.0 90.0 ± 14.9 72.2 ± 13.6 20.0 ± 21.7 83.3 ± 21.1 40.0 ± 14.9 97.2 ± 6.8 66.7 ± 35.4
4 33.3 ± 25.8 50.0 ± 50.0 8.3 ± 20.4 10.0 ± 22.4 33.3 ± 25.8 60.0 ± 41.8 100.0 ± 0.0 50.0 ± 0.0 75.0 ± 41.8 10.0 ± 22.4 91.7 ± 20.4 40.0 ± 41.8 91.7 ± 20.4 30.0 ± 27.4
5 50.0 ± 27.4 65.0 ± 37.9 0.0 ± 0.0 5.0 ± 11.2 37.5 ± 41.1 50.0 ± 25.0 91.7 ± 20.4 85.0 ± 22.4 79.2 ± 33.2 0.0 ± 0.0 79.2 ± 33.2 25.0 ± 35.4 100.0 ± 0.0 60.0 ± 33.5
7 63.9 ± 16.4 70.0 ± 13.9 2.8 ± 6.8 0.0 ± 0.0 63.9 ± 12.5 93.3 ± 9.1 88.9 ± 27.2 86.7 ± 21.7 77.8 ± 32.8 13.3 ± 13.9 8.3 ± 11.8 13.3 ± 13.9 97.2 ± 6.8 86.7 ± 18.3
8 41.7 ± 30.3 49.0 ± 26.3 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 33.3 ± 20.4 87.0 ± 18.6 83.3 ± 40.8 66.0 ± 14.7 83.3 ± 20.4 15.0 ± 22.4 0.0 ± 0.0 10.0 ± 22.4 95.8 ± 10.2 70.0 ± 32.6
9 33.3 ± 10.5 73.3 ± 19.0 0.0 ± 0.0 10.0 ± 14.9 58.3 ± 9.1 70.0 ± 18.3 94.4 ± 13.6 96.7 ± 7.5 83.3 ± 21.1 10.0 ± 9.1 83.3 ± 27.9 43.3 ± 25.3 97.2 ± 6.8 73.3 ± 38.4
10 36.1 ± 16.4 53.3 ± 32.1 0.0 ± 0.0 10.0 ± 14.9 52.8 ± 12.5 76.7 ± 19.0 97.2 ± 6.8 86.7 ± 21.7 77.8 ± 25.1 20.0 ± 27.4 61.1 ± 31.0 46.7 ± 13.9 100.0 ± 0.0 83.3 ± 20.4
P-values
    Season 0.0079 0.0762 0.0005 0.0275 0.0002 <0.0001 0.0189
    Compartment (Comp) 0.2028 0.2063 0.0001 0.0682 0.9325 <0.0001 <0.0001
    Season × Comp 0.8267 0.5575 0.2186 0.2729 0.6201 0.0799 0.1672



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On-truck behavior of pigs (mean percent of scans) by season (summer: June, July; winter: January, February, March) and truck compartment

 
Season Compartment P-values
Summer n1 = 34 Winter n = 13 1 n = 7 2 n = 7 3 n = 6 4 n = 7 5 n = 7 8 n = 7 9 n = 6 SE Season Compartment (Comp) Season × Comp
Farm
    Standing 18.1 20.0 22.2 13.1 7.4 5.9 23.4 42.4 18.8 4.9 0.737 <0.001 0.267
    Sitting 37.7 41.9 37.2 34.0 43.6 30.5 54.9 39.3 39.0 8.4 0.616 0.527 0.193
    Lying 39.2 38.1 40.1 52.9 48.3 63.6 21.0 8.4 35.8 10.7 0.934 0.004 0.150
Transit
    Standing 19.3 30.5 32.9 26.3 16.2 21.0 25.6 30.4 21.7 4.0 0.025 0.064 0.285
    Sitting 34.9 40.8 35.6 41.7 40.2 25.7 41.0 39.1 41.7 3.5 0.143 0.078 0.071
    Lying 45.4 31.1 32.8 32.2 45.2 55.5 35.3 31.8 34.7 5.2 0.003 0.071 0.538
Arrival
    Standing 14.2 19.1 23.0 9.9 27.9 8.2 06.8 12.1 28.8 7.5 0.382 0.141 0.002
    Sitting 32.1 30.1 21.8 29.0 29.7 34.6 37.0 35.4 30.0 6.6 0.722 0.812 0.281
    Lying 53.7 50.8 55.1 61.1 42.5 57.1 56.2 52.5 41.2 10.0 0.705 0.723 0.015
1Number of groups observed. Values differ due to technical problems with cameras during winter.



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Behavior of pigs (mean frequency ± SE) during unloading by season (summer: June, July; winter: January, February, March) and truck compartment

 
Item Slips Falls Overlaps Backward
Season
    Summer (n = 54) 2.17 ± 0.41 0.63 ± 0.12 1.52 ± 0.24 1.26 ± 0.25
    Winter (n = 45) 1.69 ± 0.44 0.21 ± 0.13 0.29 ± 0.26 0.18 ± 0.26
Compartment
    1 (n = 11) 1.69 ± 0.68 0.64 ± 0.24 0.81 ± 0.40 0.24 ± 0.43
    2 (n = 11) 3.42 ± 0.60 0.68 ± 0.21 0.43 ± 0.36 0.77 ± 0.38
    3 (n = 11) 3.09 ± 0.58 0.78 ± 0.20 1.10 ± 0.35 1.54 ± 0.36
    4 (n = 11) 1.02 ± 0.95 0.34 ± 0.35 0.45 ± 0.57 0.34 ± 0.61
    5 (n = 11) 2.59 ± 0.95 0.41 ± 0.24 1.06 ± 0.40 0.33 ± 0.42
    7 (n = 11) 0.79 ± 0.58 0.41 ± 0.20 0.60 ± 0.35 0.24 ± 0.36
    8 (n = 11) 0.59 ± 0.71 0.00 ± 0.25 0.63 ± 0.42 0.52 ± 0.45
    9 (n = 11) 2.32 ± 0.59 0.27 ± 0.20 1.88 ± 0.35 1.24 ± 0.37
    10 (n = 11) 1.82 ± 0.58 0.26 ± 0.20 1.20 ± 0.35 1.24 ± 0.36
P-values
    Season 0.032 0.004 <0.001 <0.001
    Compartment (Comp) <0.001 0.22 0.091 0.016
    Season × Comp 0.30 0.33 0.13 0.15