Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Circulating concentrations of IgG (top panel) and IgA (bottom panel) in parity 1 (P1) and parity 4 (P4) dams. Immunoglobulin concentrations were evaluated in serum obtained at d 90 and 114 of gestation and immediately after parturition (d 0). Each bar represents the least-squares mean (±SEM) of 19 and 24 observations for P1 and P4 dams, respectively. Bars with different letters (a,b) differed (P < 0.05)

 


Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Concentrations of IgG (top panel) and IgA (bottom panel) in d 0 (colostrum), d 7, and d 14 milk samples obtained from parity 1 (P1) and parity 4 (P4) dams. Each bar represents the least-squares mean (±SEM) of 19 and 24 observations for P1 and P4 dams, respectively. Bars with different letters (a,b) differed (P < 0.05)

 


Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Circulating concentrations of IgG (top panel) and IgA (bottom panel) in serum obtained from the progeny of sows (First parity and fourth parity; P1 and P4, respectively). Immunoglobulin concentrations were evaluated in serum obtained at 1, 7, and 14 d postpartum. Each bar represents the least-squares mean (±SEM) of the progeny of 19 and 24 observations for P1 and P4 dams, respectively. Bars with different letters (a,b) differed (P < 0.05)

 


Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Panel A is a representative dendrogram derived from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the fecal bacterial community of piglets derived from parity 1 (P1; n = 9 piglets; 3 piglets/dam) and parity 4 (P4; n = 9 piglets; 3 piglets/dam) dams on d 7 postfarrowing. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA)-type dendograms were constructed based on the similarity matrix resulting from Pearson’s pairwise comparisons of DGGE fingerprints. The legend on the right side of the figure indicates samples obtained from individual pigs within parity. The black squares represent P1 piglets and the gray squares represent P4 piglets. The scaled bar above the figure in Panel A (left) indicates the percentage similarity coefficients.