View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Mean, minimum, and maximum phenotypic values and SD for color, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and trained sensory palatability traits of LM

 
Trait Mean Minimum Maximum SD
Lean color1 6.39 2.00 8.00 1.31
L*2 38.59 7.20 77.00 5.48
a*2 22.30 12.21 43.20 4.03
b*2 9.90 –0.62 28.10 3.63
3 d WBSF, kg 3.92 1.60 10.17 1.26
7 d WBSF, kg 3.83 1.58 8.27 1.11
14 d WBSF, kg 3.54 1.23 9.40 1.02
21 d WBSF, kg 3.30 0.95 8.73 0.97
3 d IT3 5.15 1.40 8.00 1.15
7 d IT 5.67 2.50 8.00 1.02
14 d IT 5.98 2.67 7.86 0.94
21 d IT 6.30 2.86 8.00 0.84
3 d STT3 5.19 1.20 7.75 1.17
7 d STT 5.74 2.33 8.00 1.01
14 d STT 6.09 2.33 7.88 0.93
21 d STT 6.37 2.86 8.00 0.82
3 d IJ3 5.76 3.33 7.67 0.66
7 d IJ 5.79 4.00 7.57 0.63
14 d IJ 5.76 3.83 7.80 0.68
21 d IJ 5.81 3.50 7.63 0.67
3 d SJ3 5.81 0.70 7.80 0.71
7 d SJ 5.84 3.71 7.40 0.69
14 d SJ 5.79 3.83 7.80 0.74
21 d SJ 5.82 3.17 7.83 0.73
3 d BF3 6.18 3.33 7.50 0.50
7 d BF 6.25 0.30 7.50 0.51
14 d BF 6.33 4.00 7.80 0.50
21 d BF 6.36 4.00 7.83 0.50
3 d FI3 5.92 4.17 7.70 0.53
7 d FI 6.06 4.00 7.43 0.49
14 d FI 6.15 4.43 7.50 0.51
21 d FI 6.25 4.67 7.43 0.47
3 d OVM3 5.25 2.00 7.71 1.00
7 d OVM 5.68 2.50 7.71 0.84
14 d OVM 5.91 2.33 7.70 0.81
21 d OVM 6.10 3.14 7.79 0.74
1Surface lean color measured at 48 h postmortem (1 = extremely dark; 8 = extremely bright cherry red).
2Hunter Colorimeter readings at 48 h postmortem. Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage L* (lightness; 0 = black and 100 = white), a* (redness/greenness; positive values = red and negative values = green), and b* (yellowness/blueness; positive values = yellow and negative values = blue).
3IT = initial tenderness; STT = sustained tenderness; IJ = initial juiciness; SJ = sustained juiciness; BF = beef flavor; FI = flavor intensity; OVM = overall mouthfeel (1 = extremely tough, extremely dry, extremely uncharacteristic young beef, extremely bland beef, non-beef-like mouthfeel; 8 = extremely tender, extremely juicy, extremely characteristic young beef, extremely characteristic young beef, beef-like mouthfeel).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Heritability estimates for lean color, Hunter colorimeter readings, 21-d Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and trained sensory panel ratings of LM.

 
Trait h2 ± SE
Lean color1 0.34 ± 0.122
L*2 0.09 ± 0.087
a*2 0.29 ± 0.115
b*2 0.28 ± 0.120
3 d WBSF, kg 0.23 ± 0.114
7 d WBSF, kg 0.37 ± 0.147
14 d WBSF, kg 0.28 ± 0.121
21 d WBSF, kg 0.42 ± 0.148
3 d IT3 0.32 ± 0.131
7 d IT 0.37 ± 1.140
14 d IT 0.28 ± 0.126
21 d IT 0.19 ± 0.110
3 d STT3 0.31 ± 0.129
7 d STT 0.31 ± 0.129
14 d STT 0.33 ± 0.135
21 d STT 0.16 ± 0.108
3 d IJ3 0.42 ± 0.148
7 d IJ 0.00 ± 0.062
14 d IJ 0.17 ± 0.104
21 d IJ 0.00 ± 0.072
3 d SJ3 0.05 ± 0.081
7 d SJ 0.01 ± 0.062
14 d SJ 0.18 ± 0.105
21 d SJ 0.00 ± 0.089
3 d BF3 0.01 ± 0.072
7 d BF 0.00 ± 0.080
14 d BF 0.12 ± 0.097
21 d BF 0.18 ± 0.110
3 d FI3 0.22 ± 0.114
7 d FI 0.06 ± 0.081
14 d FI 0.11 ± 0.094
21 d FI 0.10 ± 0.087
3 d OVM3 0.24 ± 0.119
7 d OVM 0.14 ± 0.097
14 d OVM 0.18 ± 0.107
21 d OVM 0.02 ± 0.076
1Surface lean color measured at 48 h postmortem (1 = extremely dark; 8 = extremely bright cherry red).
2Hunter Colorimeter readings at 48 h postmortem. Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage L* (lightness; 0 = black and 100 = white), a* (redness/greenness; positive values = red and negative values = green), and b* (yellowness/blueness; positive values = yellow and negative values = blue).
3IT = initial tenderness; STT = sustained tenderness; IJ = initial juiciness; SJ = sustained juiciness; BF = beef flavor; FI = flavor intensity; OVM = overall mouthfeel (1 = extremely tough, extremely dry, extremely uncharacteristic young beef, extremely bland beef, non-beef-like mouthfeel; 8 = extremely tender, extremely juicy, extremely characteristic young beef, extremely characteristic young beef, beef-like mouthfeel).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Genetic and phenotypic correlation estimates among the palatability traits and measures of subjective and objective color of LM

 
Genetic correlations
Phenotypic correlations2
Trait1 Lean color3 a*4 b*4 Lean color L*4 a* b*
21 d WBSF, kg –0.46 –0.71 –0.72 –0.21** –0.18** –0.11** –0.03
7 d IT 0.56 0.43 0.44 0.24** 0.18** 0.02 –0.02
14 d STT 0.58 0.70 0.58 0.23** 0.13** 0.05 0.02
3 d IJ –1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 –0.01 0.04 0.02
14 d SJ –0.45 –0.35 –0.23 0.02 0.05 –0.01 –0.01
21 d BF 0.64 0.12 0.19 0.18** 0.13** –0.02 –0.04
3 d FI 0.27 1.00 1.00 0.14** 0.09* 0.15** 0.09*
3 y OVM 0.46 0.80 0.79 0.25** 0.20** 0.15** 0.11**
1WBSF = Warner-Bratzler shear force Warner-Bratzler shear force; IT = initial tenderness; STT = sustained tenderness; IJ = initial juiciness; SJ = sustained juiciness; BF = beef flavor; FI = flavor intensity; OVM = overall mouthfeel (1 = extremely tough, extremely dry, extremely uncharacteristic young beef, extremely bland beef, non-beef-like mouthfeel; 8 = extremely tender, extremely juicy, extremely characteristic young beef, extremely characteristic young beef, beef-like mouthfeel).
2For phenotypic correlations, P > 0.10, *P < 0.05, and **P < 0.01.
3Lean color: 1 = extremely dark, 8 = extremely bright cherry red.
4a* = redness, b* = yellowness, and L* = lightness.