View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Summary of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzyme effects on production traits and total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients in lactating dairy cows

 
Source1 Experimental design (number of cows) Product/manufacturer Declared primary activities Application level Forage level in basal diet Milk production, kg/d Effects2
DMI Milk yield Milk components Total tract digestibility
Chen et al., 1995 Completely randomized (36) Digest M, Loveland Industries Inc., Greeley, CO Amylase and protease 209 g/t3 34% 34 to 37 - - - ↑CP4
Rode et al., 1999 Completely randomized (20) Pro-Mote5 Xylanase and cellulase 1.3 kg/t TMR6 DM 39% 36 to 40 - - ↓MF ↑DM, OM, NDF, ADF, and CP
Schingoethe et al., 1999 Completely randomized block (50) FinnFeeds Int.7 Cellulose and xylanase 0.7 to 1.5 L/t forage DM 55% 25 to 28 - -8 - NR
Yang et al., 19999 Latin square (4) Pro-Mote5 Cellulase and xylanase 0.5 to 1 g/kg TMR DM 55% 24 to 26 - 10 - ↑OM, and NDF
Beauchemin et al., 2000 Latin square (6) Natugrain 33-L11 β-glucanase, xylanase, and endocellulase 1.22 to 3.67 L/t TMR 45% 30 to 31 - ↑MMP ↑DM, and ↓NDF13
Kung et al., 200014 Completely randomized (30) FinnFeeds Int.7 Cellulase, hemicellulase, and xylanase 2 to 10 L/t fresh forage 50% 33 to 35 and 36 to 39 - ↑ (both experiments) - or ↓MF and MMP NR
Yang et al., 20009 Completely randomized block (43) Biovance Technol. Inc.5 Xylanase 50 mg/kg TMR DM 38% 35 to 37 - - ↑DM
Zheng et al., 2000 Completely randomized block (48) Bovizyme 40117 Cellulase and xylanase 1.25 L/t forage DM 50 to 65% 33 to 37 - - - NR
Bowman et al., 20029 Latin square (8) Promote N.E.T.15 Xylanase and cellulose 1 g/cow per d 55% 29 to 30 - - ↑MF and MMP ↑All4
Knowlton et al., 2002 Switchover (12) Loveland Industries Inc., Greeley, CO Cellulase 204 g/t TMR 45 to 61% 31 to 43 - - - -
Kung et al., 2002 Completely randomized (30) FinnFeeds Int.7 Cellulase and xylanase 10 L/t fresh forage 45% 36 to 39 - - - NR
Sutton et al., 20038 Latin square (4) Biovance Technologies, Inc.5 Xylanase and endoglucanase 2 kg/t TMR DM 57% 34 to 36 - - ↑MMP ↓DM, and OM
Vicini et al., 200314 Completely randomized (257 and 122) FinnFeeds Int.14 and Biovance Technologies Inc.5 Xylanase and endoglucanase 1.25 to 2 L/t TMR DM 43 to 57% 32 to 33 and 28 to 29 - - - NR
DeFrain et al., 200516 Completely randomized block (24) Amaize17 Amylase 0.1% TMR DM 47 to 69% 38 - - - NR
Eun and Beauchemin, 2005 Latin square (8) Protex 6L18 Protease 1.25 mg/kg TMR DM 34 to 60% 41 to 48 ↑MF; and ↓MMP19 ↑All
Tricarico et al., 2005 Latin square (20) Amaize17 Amylase 240 to 720 dextrinizing units/kg TMR DM 55% 29 to 30 NR -8 - NR
Elwakeel et al., 2007 Split plot (24) Saf Agri, Milwaukee, WI β-glucanase and xylanase 15 g/cow per d 37% 43 to 44 - - - NR
Knowlton et al., 2007 Completely randomized (24) Cattle-Ase-P20 Cellulase and phytase 297 g/t TMR DM 37% 37 to 39 - - - -21
Reddish and Kung, 2007 Switchover (24) Alltech Inc.17 Cellulose and xylanase 10 g/cow per d 50% 40 - - - -22
Hristov et al., 2008 Latin square (4) Alltech, Inc.17 Amylase and xylanase 10 g/cow per d 40% 30 - - - ↑DM, OM, and CP
Miller et al., 2008 Completely randomized block (72) Roxazyme G2 Liquid23 Xylanase and endoglucanase 2.15 and 4.30 mL/kg concentrate Pasture and 6.7 kg/d grain supplement 28 to 29 - - - NR
Gado et al., 200924 Completely randomized (20) ZADO24 Protease, amylase, and cellulase 40 g/cow per d 70% 13 to 16 - ↑DM, OM, NDF, and ADF
Klingerman et al., 2009 Latin square (28) Amaize17 and an experimental preparation23 Amylase 0.4 g/kg TMR DM and 0.88 to 4.4 mL/kg 50% 44 to 47 25 - ↑DM, OM, CP, and NDF25
Bernard et al., 2010 Completely randomized (44) Promote N.E.T.-L26 Cellulase 4 g/cow per d 50 to 54% 40 to 42 - - - NR
Peters et al., 2010 Switchover (6) Roxazyme G223 Cellulase and xylanase 6.2 mL/kg TMR DM 50% 26 to 27 - - - -
Holtshausen et al., 2011 Completely randomized (60) AB Vista, Marlborough, UK Xylanase and endoglucanase 0.5 to 1.0 mL/kg DM 52% 38 - - NR
Arriola et al., 2011 Completely randomized block (66) Dyadic International Inc., Jupiter, FL Xylanase, exoglucanase, and endoglucanase 3.4 mg/g TMR DM 52 to 67% 32 to 36 - - - ↑All
Ferraretto et al., 2011 Completely randomized (45) Ronozyme RumiStar CT23 Amylase 300 kilo novo units/kg TMR DM 50% 49.5 to 52.1 - - ↓MMP NR
1In chronological order.
2 = increase; ↓ = decrease; - = no statistically significant effect; NR = not reported; MF = milk fat percentage; MMP = milk protein percentage; All = all nutrients studied.
3Applied to the grain portion of the diet.
4Interaction with grain processing.
5Biovance Technologies Inc., Omaha, NE.
6TMR = total mixed ration.
7FinnFeeds International, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK.
8Reported increase of 3.5% fat corrected milk.
9These studies investigated enzyme application method.
10For one of the application methods.
11BASF Corporation, Ludwigshafen, Germany.
12Only the low enzyme application level.
13Only the high enzyme application level.
14Two experiments.
15Agribrands International, St. Louis, MO.
16Experimental diets were fed from 21 d before expected calving through 21 d in milk.
17Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY.
18Genencor International, Rochester, NY.
19Only low-forage (34%) diet.
20Animal Feed Technologies, Greeley, CO.
21Trends for increased NDF and ADF digestibility.
22Digestion experiment with sheep.
23DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.
24Molecular Biology Laboratory of the Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Questionable data; see discussion.
25Milk yield and digestibilities increased only by low level of an experimental amylase enzyme.
26Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Summary of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzyme effects on production traits and total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients in beef cattle

 
Source1 Experimental design (number of cows) Product/ manufacturer Declared primary activities Application level Forage level in basal diet Effects2
FCR3 Total tract digestibility
DMI ADG
Beauchemin et al., 1995 Completely randomized (72) Xylanase B4 and Spezyme CP5 Xylanase and cellulase 40 to 316 FPU6/kg DM 91 to 96.7% 7 8 - NR
Lewis et al., 1996 Latin square (5) Grasszyme, FinnFeeds Int.9 Xylanase and cellulase 1.65 mL/kg forage DM 70% - NR NR ↑DM, NDF, and ADF
Beauchemin et al., 1997 Completely randomized block (56) Xylanase B4 and Spezyme CP5 Xylanase and cellulase 4.0 L/t concentrate DM 4.90% - - - NR
Krause et al., 1998 Latin square Pro-Mote4 Xylanase and cellulase 1.5 g/kg DM 5% - NR NR ↑ADF
Beauchemin et al., 1999 Completely randomized block (1,200) Pro-Mote4 Xylanase and cellulase 1.4 L/t DM 7.8% - - NR
McAllister et al., 1999 Completely randomized (98 and 66) FinnFeeds Int.9 Xylanase and cellulase 1.25 to 5.0 L/t DM 70 to 82.5% 10 11 - -12
ZoBell et al., 2000 Completely randomized (32) FinnFeeds Int.9 Xylanase and endoglucanase 15,880 and 5,580 IU/kg TMR13 DM 20 to 65% - - - NR
Balci et al., 2007 Completely randomized (16) Promote N.E.T.14 Xylanase and cellulase 60 g/d Ad libitum wheat straw NR - (in vitro)
Tricarico et al., 2007 Completely randomized block (120, 96, and 56) Amaize15 Amylase 580 to 1,160 DU16/kg DM - 17 - NR
Krueger et al., 2008 Completely randomized (50) Biocellulase A20, Loders Croklaan, Channahon, IL Xylanase and cellulase 16.5 g/t Ad libitum access to hay 18 - - ↑DM, NDF, and CP18
Eun et al., 2009 Completely randomized (60) Fibrozyme15 Endoglucanase, exoglucanase, xylanase, and amylase 1 to 2 g/kg TMR DM 20 to 58% - - - NR
DiLorenzo et al., 2011 Completely randomized block (32) RumiStar19 Amylase 400 kilo novo units/kg DM 5.1% - - - -
Vera et al., 2012 Completely randomized (48) Danisco-Agtech, Waukesha, WI Protease 0.52 g/kg DM TMR 25 to 63.4% 20 - - ↓NDF,11 ↑DM, N, NDF, and ADF11
1In chronological order.
2↑ = increase; ↓ = decrease; - = no statistically significant effect; NR = not reported.
3FCR = feed conversion rate.
4Biovance Technologies Inc., Omaha, NE.
5Genencor, Rochester, NY.
6FPU = filter paper units of cellulase.
7Dependant on forage and application rate (increases seen at alfalfa level 3).
8Dependant on forage and application rate (increases seen at alfalfa level 1, 2, and 3 and at timothy hay level 5).
9Finnfeeds International, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK.
10Only the greatest amount of enzyme application (5.0 L/t) in the backgrounding study.
11Only in the finishing stage.
12Digestion experiment with sheep.
13TMR = total mixed ration.
14Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN.
15Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY.
16DU = dextrinizing unit.
17Quadratic increase observed in experiment 2 only.
18Dependent on time of enzyme application before feeding.
19DSM Nutritional Products, Inc., Kaiseraugst, Switzerland.
20Only in growing phase.