Diagram of experimental design. Multiparous, nonlactating beef cows were bred and fed similar diets until d 30 of gestation. On d 30 of pregnancy, cows were randomly assigned to dietary treatments: control (CON; 100% NRC; n = 18) and nutrient restriction (RES; 60% NRC; n = 30). On d 85 cows were either slaughtered (CON, n = 6; RES, n = 6) or remained on control (CC; n = 12) or restricted (RR; n = 12) or were realimented to control (RC; n = 11). On d 140 cows were ether slaughtered (CC, n = 6; RR, n = 6; RC, n = 5) or remained on control (CCC; n = 6; RCC; n = 5) or realimented to control (RRC; n = 6). On d 254 all remaining cows were slaughtered. An animal from the RC group was removed from the study because early embryonic loss and a second cow was removed from RCC group because the presence of twins. Diets consisted of grass hay and mineral and vitamin supplement at either 100% NRC recommendations for NE for maintenance and fetal growth (NRC, 2000). Nutrient restricted cows received 60% of the same control diet.