View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Ingredient composition of experimental diets (as-fed basis), Exp. 1 and 2

 
Sunflower meal (Exp. 1)
Cottonseed meal (Exp. 2)
Autoclaved at 130°C
Autoclaved at 130°C
Ingredient, % Nonautoclaved 20 min 40 min 60 min Nonautoclaved 15 min 35 min 60 min N-free1
Sunflower meal 42.00 42.00 42.00 42.00
Cottonseed meal 32.00 32.00 32.00 32.00
Cornstarch 42.00 42.00 42.00 42.00 41.97 41.97 41.97 41.97 67.00
Sucrose 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
Solka floc2 5.00
Soybean oil 3.40 3.40 3.40 3.40 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.50 4.00
Ground limestone 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.80
Monocalcium phosphate 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 1.60
Sodium chloride 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
Ferrous sulfate 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03
Magnesium oxide 0.10
Potassium carbonate 0.40
Chromic oxide 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
Vitamin–mineral premix3 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
1A N-free diet was produced separately for Exp. 1 and 2.
2Fiber Sales and Development Corp., Urbana, OH.
3Provided the following per kilogram of complete diet: vitamin A as retinyl acetate, 11,128 IU; vitamin D3 as cholecalciferol, 2,204 IU; vitamin E as DL-alphatocopheryl acetate, 66 IU; vitamin K as menadionenicotinamide bisulfite, 1.42 mg; thiamin as thiamine mononitrate, 0.24 mg; riboflavin, 6.58 mg; pyridoxine as pyridoxine hydrochloride, 0.24 mg; vitamin B12, 0.03 mg; D-pantothenic acid as D-calcium pantothenate, 23.5 mg; niacin as nicotinamide, 1.0 mg, and nicotinic acid, 43.0 mg; folic acid, 1.58 mg; biotin, 0.44 mg; Cu, 10 mg as copper sulfate; Fe, 125 mg as iron sulfate; I, 1.26 mg as potassium iodate; Mn, 60 mg as manganese sulfate; Se, 0.3 mg as sodium selenite; and Zn, 100 mg as zinc oxide.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Analyzed composition of experimental diets (as-fed basis), Exp. 1 and 21

 
Sunflower meal (Exp. 1)
Cottonseed meal (Exp. 2)
Autoclaved at 130°C
Autoclaved at 130°C
Item Nonautoclaved 20 min 40 min 60 min Nonautoclaved 15 min 35 min 60 min
DM, % 91.4 90.9 90.9 90.7 92.7 91.9 92.0 92.4
CP, % 13.9 14.6 15.0 14.3 14.0 12.5 13.6 13.6
Indispensable AA, %
    Arg 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.4
    His 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4
    Ile 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
    Leu 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.8
    Lys 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5
    Met 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
    Phe 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
    Thr 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
    Trp 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2
    Val 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6
    All indispensable AA 6.3 5.9 6.3 5.5 5.9 5.1 5.2 5.5
Dispensable AA, %
    Ala 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
    Asp 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2
    Cys 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
    Glu 2.9 2.7 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.4 2.6
    Gly 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6
    Pro 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
    Ser 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6
    All dispensable AA 7.4 7.0 7.6 6.8 6.2 5.6 5.8 6.2
    Total AA 13.6 12.9 13.9 12.3 12.1 10.7 11.0 11.7
1The concentrations (%) of DM and CP in the N-free diet were 92.16 and 0.58 in Exp. 1 and 91.94 and 0.24 in Exp. 2, respectively.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Chemical composition of sunflower meal and effects of heat damage on nutritional composition of sunflower meal1

 
Sunflower meal
P-value2
Item 0 20 40 60 SEM Linear Quadratic
DM, % 91.3 89.4 90.1 89.2 0.5 0.04 0.08
Ash, % 8.1 8.3 8.0 7.9 0.2 0.41 0.60
CP, % 37.0 36.9 36.7 36.4 0.6 0.48 0.99
ADF, % 21.8 20.3 21.1 23.3 0.8 0.16 0.80
NDF, % 29.5 30.9 31.7 35.9 2.4 0.10 0.72
Lignin, % 6.6 5.7 6.4 8.7 0.7 0.06 0.99
ADIN, % 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.1 0.01 0.76
Reducing sugars, % 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.2 0.5 0.66 0.83
Lys:CP3 3.6 3.4 3.2 2.8 0.2 <0.01 0.53
AEE,4 % 1.9 0.9 1.8 1.6 nd5 nd nd
Ca, % 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 nd nd nd
P, % 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.1 nd nd nd
L* 53.8 51.7 49.7 51.8 nd nd nd
Indispensable AA, %
    Arg 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.6 0.1 0.23 0.71
    His 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.0 0.33 0.31
    Ile 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.4 0.1 0.85 0.86
    Leu 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 0.1 0.65 0.97
    Lys 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.1 0.01 0.54
    Met 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.0 0.82 0.79
    Phe 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6 0.1 0.48 0.93
    Thr 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 0.0 0.64 0.78
    Trp 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.0 <0.01 0.51
    Val 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.7 0.1 0.74 0.99
Dispensable AA, %
    Ala 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 0.1 0.58 0.88
    Asp 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 0.1 0.62 0.87
    Cys 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.0 0.48 0.73
    Glu 6.4 6.6 6.6 6.7 0.2 0.38 0.95
    Gly 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.0 0.1 0.65 0.80
    Pro 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 0.1 0.18 0.47
    Ser 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 0.0 0.46 0.27
1Data are means of 3 observations, except for AEE, Ca, P, and L*.
2Linear and quadratic effects of duration of autoclaving.
3Calculated by expressing the concentration of Lys in each ingredient as a percentage of the concentration of CP (Stein et al., 2009).
4AEE = acid hydrolyzed ether extract.
5nd = not determined.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Apparent ileal digestibility of CP and AA in sunflower meal subjected to increasing duration of autoclaving by growing pigs (Exp. 1)1

 
Sunflower meal
Autoclaved at 130°C
P-value2
Item Nonautoclaved 20 min 40 min 60 min SEM Linear Quadratic
CP, % 69.5 70.1 64.7 57.9 2.1 <0.01 0.41
Indispensable AA, %
    Arg 88.0 87.2 84.6 81.0 1.0 <0.01 0.88
    His 81.5 80.1 78.5 71.6 1.2 <0.01 0.23
    Ile 81.6 81.4 80.0 75.0 1.1 <0.01 0.56
    Leu 82.1 81.7 80.3 75.3 1.1 <0.01 0.53
    Lys 73.9 71.3 64.9 51.4 2.1 <0.01 0.66
    Met 89.2 88.3 87.9 83.4 0.7 <0.01 0.08
    Phe 84.3 84.1 83.6 79.6 1.0 <0.01 0.34
    Thr 74.3 73.3 70.7 63.3 1.6 <0.01 0.58
    Trp 77.0 78.6 74.4 69.3 1.5 <0.01 0.37
    Val 80.6 80.3 78.7 73.3 1.2 <0.01 0.56
    Average 82.0 81.1 79.3 73.3 1.1 <0.01 0.43
Dispensable AA, %
    Ala 73.5 73.2 69.2 60.5 2.1 <0.01 0.89
    Asp 79.1 77.4 74.1 65.1 1.3 <0.01 0.34
    Cys 75.9 74.8 70.4 62.2 2.0 <0.01 0.95
    Glu 87.7 87.2 85.6 81.8 1.0 <0.01 0.71
    Gly 54.6 57.1 44.6 36.0 4.8 <0.01 0.28
    Ser 74.2 72.9 71.5 64.2 1.2 <0.01 0.26
    Average 74.2 73.8 69.7 62.2 1.7 <0.01 0.94
1Data are means of 10 observations.
2Linear and quadratic effects of duration of autoclaving.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Standardized ileal digestibility of CP and AA in sunflower meal subjected to increasing duration of autoclaving by growing pigs (Exp. 1)1

 
Sunflower meal
Autoclaved at 130°C
P-value2
Item Nonautoclaved 20 min 40 min 60 min SEM Linear Quadratic
CP, % 82.7 82.6 76.8 70.6 2.1 <0.01 0.35
Indispensable AA, %
    Arg 92.5 92.1 89.3 86.5 1.0 <0.01 0.55
    His 86.9 86.0 83.9 77.8 1.2 <0.01 0.48
    Ile 87.6 87.6 85.8 81.4 1.1 <0.01 0.83
    Leu 88.2 88.1 86.2 81.9 1.1 <0.01 0.85
    Lys 83.2 81.2 74.8 63.5 2.1 <0.01 0.96
    Met 92.8 92.3 91.6 87.8 0.7 <0.01 0.25
    Phe 89.8 89.9 89.0 85.6 1.0 <0.01 0.68
    Thr 84.6 84.2 80.8 74.4 1.6 <0.01 0.96
    Trp 85.4 86.5 82.8 78.6 1.5 <0.01 0.40
    Val 87.2 87.1 85.0 80.3 1.2 <0.01 0.88
    Average 88.5 88.0 85.7 80.7 1.1 <0.01 0.79
Dispensable AA, %
    Ala 84.9 85.1 80.2 72.8 2.1 <0.01 0.69
    Asp 85.4 84.0 80.2 71.9 1.3 <0.01 0.62
    Cys 84.6 84.1 79.3 72.4 2.0 <0.01 0.78
    Glu 91.6 91.3 89.4 86.0 1.0 <0.01 0.99
    Gly 73.8 77.1 63.4 52.9 3.9 <0.01 0.17
    Ser 83.2 82.3 80.1 73.9 1.2 <0.01 0.56
    Average 83.9 84.0 79.1 71.9 1.7 <0.01 0.59
1Data are means of 10 observations; Values for standardized ileal digestibility were calculated by correcting apparent ileal digestibility values for basal endogenous losses (g/kg of DMI) determined by feeding pigs a N-free diet: CP, 20.08; Arg, 0.61; His, 0.22; Ile, 0.40; Leu, 0.66; Lys, 0.55; Met, 0.13; Phe, 0.42; Thr, 0.63; Trp, 0.18; Val, 0.54; Ala, 0.84; Asp, 0.94, Cys, 0.24; Glu, 1.24; Gly, 1.85; and Ser, 0.63.
2Linear and quadratic effects of duration of autoclaving.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Linear regression to predict the concentration (%) of standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA from the concentrations (%) of AA, NDF, lignin, analyzed Lys as percentage of CP, and reducing sugars as independent variables in sunflower meal fed to pigs1

 
Dependent variable Intercept
Independent variables2
Estimate SE P-value Variable 1 Estimate SE P-value Variable 2 Estimate SE P-value RMSE2 Adjusted R2
SID Arg –0.99 0.30 <0.01 Arg 0.89 0.15 <0.01 Lys:CP 0.32 0.09 <0.01 0.08 0.77
SID His 0.45 0.17 <0.05 His 0.60 0.19 <0.01 NDF –0.07 0.00 <0.01 0.03 0.67
SID Ile 0.64 0.29 <0.05 Ile 0.59 0.29 <0.01 NDF –0.07 0.00 <0.01 0.04 0.43
SID Leu 0.99 0.44 <0.05 Leu 0.61 0.20 <0.01 NDF –0.01 0.00 <0.01 0.07 0.49
SID Lys –1.00 0.12 <0.01 Lys 0.54 0.31 0.08 RS3 0.30 0.08 <0.01 0.06 0.85
SID Met 0.20 0.08 <0.05 Met 0.81 0.10 <0.01 NDF –0.003 0.001 <0.01 0.01 0.81
SID Phe 0.46 0.26 0.08 Phe 0.73 0.16 <0.01 NDF –0.01 0.00 <0.01 0.04 0.50
SID Thr 1.45 0.08 <0.01 NDF –0.01 0.00 <0.01 0.06 0.48
SID Trp –0.23 0.05 <0.01 Trp 0.53 0.23 <0.05 Lys:CP 0.12 0.04 <0.01 0.02 0.81
SID Val 1.59 0.11 <0.01 NDF –0.03 0.01 <0.01 Lignin 0.13 0.05 <0.05 0.06 0.46
1n = 40 observations; for all models, P < 0.01.
2RMSE = root mean square error.
3RS = reducing sugars.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Chemical composition of cottonseed meal and effects of heat damage on the nutritional composition of cottonseed meal1

 
Cottonseed meal
P-value2
Item 0 15 35 60 SEM Linear Quadratic
DM, % 90.9 90.4 87.1 87.9 0.5 <0.01 0.06
Ash, % 8.7 8.8 8.6 9.2 0.3 0.30 0.44
CP, % 41.8 41.9 43.7 43.8 0.7 0.04 0.67
ADF, % 18.8 18.5 19.9 21.9 1.3 0.08 0.54
NDF, % 25.2 23.7 29.4 29.8 1.5 0.02 0.98
Lignin, % 6.4 8.8 8.4 9.2 1.2 0.21 0.52
ADIN, % 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.07 0.41
Reducing sugars, % 3.5 3.4 2.6 2.8 0.3 0.03 0.29
Lys:CP ratio3 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 0.1 0.08 0.54
AEE,4 % 1.9 0.9 1.8 1.6 nd5 nd nd
Ca, % 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 nd nd nd
P, % 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.1 nd nd nd
L* 53.8 51.7 49.7 51.8 nd nd nd
Free gossypol, % <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 nd nd nd
Total gossypol, % 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 nd nd nd
Indispensable AA, %
    Arg 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.2 0.1 0.25 0.63
    His 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 0.0 0.14 0.97
    Ile 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 0.0 0.03 0.92
    Leu 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.5 0.1 0.05 0.89
    Lys 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 0.1 0.56 0.74
    Met 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.0 0.26 0.90
    Phe 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.3 0.1 0.02 0.74
    Thr 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 0.0 0.04 0.98
    Trp 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.98 0.87
    Val 1.8 1.7 1.9 1.9 0.1 0.11 0.92
Dispensable AA, %
    Ala 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 0.0 0.09 0.96
    Asp 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.6 0.1 0.59 0.94
    Cys 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.0 0.52 0.94
    Glu 7.7 7.6 7.9 7.8 0.2 0.42 0.87
    Gly 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 0.0 0.10 0.91
    Pro 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 0.1 0.39 0.62
    Ser 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.6 0.1 0.34 0.56
1Data are means of 3 observations, except for AEE, Ca, P, and L*, and the data for gossypol.
2Linear and quadratic effects of duration of autoclaving.
3Calculated by expressing the concentration of Lys in each ingredient as a percentage of the concentration of CP (Stein et al., 2009).
4AEE = acid hydrolyzed ether extract.
5nd = not determined.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 8.

Apparent ileal digestibility of CP and AA in cottonseed meal subjected to increasing duration of autoclaving by growing pigs (Exp. 2)1

 
Cottonseed meal
Autoclaved at 130°C
P-value2
Item Nonautoclaved 15 min 35 min 60 min SEM Linear Quadratic
CP, % 61.3 52.6 51.2 53.7 2.4 <0.01 <0.01
Indispensable AA, %
    Arg 82.2 77.3 74.6 77.8 1.3 <0.01 <0.01
    His 75.5 67.9 64.4 68.1 1.2 <0.01 <0.01
    Ile 64.0 54.5 51.9 57.9 1.6 0.04 <0.01
    Leu 66.8 60.2 57.8 63.2 1.5 0.15 <0.01
    Lys 59.1 45.8 41.1 45.6 1.8 <0.01 <0.01
    Met 67.6 61.5 58.9 63.9 1.4 0.10 <0.01
    Phe 77.4 72.1 69.9 74.1 1.2 0.11 <0.01
    Thr 58.4 51.0 47.4 53.0 1.8 0.06 <0.01
    Trp 67.9 55.3 57.1 59.1 1.6 0.01 <0.01
    Val 67.4 58.6 56.4 62.0 1.5 0.05 <0.01
    Mean 71.2 63.9 61.1 65.5 1.2 <0.01 <0.01
Dispensable AA, %
    Ala 52.7 44.2 40.7 48.8 2.6 0.12 <0.01
    Asp 71.0 63.0 56.0 60.0 1.4 <0.01 <0.01
    Cys 70.6 64.7 60.7 64.4 1.6 0.01 <0.01
    Glu 81.0 76.3 73.3 76.4 1.1 <0.01 <0.01
    Gly 25.6 16.0 9.3 22.7 6.7 0.42 <0.01
    Ser 66.5 62.4 58.5 63.2 1.3 0.07 <0.01
    Mean 61.2 54.4 49.7 55.8 1.9 <0.01 <0.01
1Data are means of 10 observations.
2Linear and quadratic effects of duration of autoclaving.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 9.

Standardized ileal digestibility of CP and AA in cottonseed meal subjected to increasing levels of heat treatment by growing pigs (Exp. 2)1

 
Cottonseed meal
Autoclaved at 130°C
P-value2
Item Nonautoclaved 15 min 35 min 60 min SEM Linear Quadratic
CP, % 76.0 69.1 66.3 68.8 2.4 <0.01 <0.01
Indispensable AA, %
    Arg 88.4 84.4 81.7 84.6 1.3 <0.01 <0.01
    His 80.9 74.2 70.6 73.9 1.2 <0.01 <0.01
    Ile 70.7 62.2 59.5 64.9 1.6 0.04 <0.01
    Leu 73.1 67.2 64.6 69.5 1.5 0.13 <0.01
    Lys 66.2 54.4 49.8 54.1 1.8 <0.01 <0.01
    Met 71.9 66.2 63.7 68.4 1.4 0.12 <0.01
    Phe 81.8 77.1 74.7 78.6 1.2 0.10 <0.01
    Thr 70.5 64.3 60.3 65.1 1.8 0.05 <0.01
    Trp 75.5 65.0 65.6 67.6 1.6 0.02 <0.01
    Val 74.3 66.6 64.1 69.2 1.5 0.05 <0.01
    Mean 75.3 68.2 65.5 69.6 1.4 0.01 <0.01
Dispensable AA, %
    Ala 66.4 59.2 55.4 62.4 2.6 0.09 <0.01
    Asp 77.4 70.1 62.9 66.6 1.4 <0.01 <0.01
    Cys 78.4 73.6 69.6 73.0 1.6 0.02 <0.01
    Glu 84.8 80.5 77.3 80.2 1.1 <0.01 <0.01
    Gly 63.0 57.6 49.3 60.0 6.7 0.27 <0.01
    Ser 76.4 73.0 69.0 73.0 1.3 0.05 <0.01
    Mean 74.4 69.0 63.9 69.1 1.9 <0.01 <0.01
1Data are means of 10 observations; Values for standardized ileal digestibility were calculated by correcting apparent ileal digestibility values for basal endogenous losses (g/kg of DMI) determined by feeding pigs a N-free diet: CP, 22.29; Arg, 1.00; His, 0.23; Ile, 0.32; Leu, 0.55; Lys, 0.44; Met, 0.10; Phe, 0.35; Thr, 0.57; Trp, 0.15; Val, 0.45; Ala, 0.80; Asp, 0.84, Cys, 0.19; Glu, 1.06; Gly, 2.30; and Ser, 0.61.
2Linear and quadratic effects of duration of autoclaving.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 10.

Linear regression to predict the concentration (%) of standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA from the concentrations (%) of AA, NDF, ADF, lignin, acid detergent insoluble N, analyzed Lys as percentage of CP, and reducing sugars as independent variables in cottonseed meal fed to pigs1

 
Dependent variable Intercept
Independent variables
Estimate SE P-value Variable 1 Estimate SE P-value Variable 2 Estimate SE P-value RMSE2 Adjusted R2
SID Arg –4.48 1.27 <0.01 Arg 1.87 0.29 <0.01 0.16 0.53
SID His 1.06 0.10 <0.01 Lignin 0.06 0.03 0.04 ADIN –2.18 0.39 <0.01 0.04 0.62
SID Ile 5.49 1.49 <0.01 Lys:CP –0.92 0.32 <0.01 ADIN –4.95 1.30 <0.01 0.07 0.40
SID Leu 0.78 0.44 0.08 NDF 0.06 0.02 <0.01 ADIN –3.22 0.77 <0.01 0.11 0.30
SID Lys 1.81 0.11 <0.01 ADIN –3.67 0.42 <0.01 0.09 0.68
SID Met 0.21 0.11 0.06 NDF 0.01 0.005 <0.01 ADIN –0.78 0.19 <0.01 0.03 0.28
SID Phe 1.01 0.33 <0.01 NDF 0.05 0.02 <0.01 ADIN –2.38 0.57 <0.01 0.08 0.30
SID Thr 0.56 0.29 0.06 NDF 0.03 0.01 0.05 ADIN –1.75 0.50 <0.01 0.07 0.23
SID Trp –0.08 0.11 0.13 ADF 0.02 0.01 <0.05 RS 0.004 0.005 <0.05 0.02 0.28
SID Val 8.27 1.87 <0.01 Lys:CP –1.40 0.39 <0.01 ADIN –7.19 1.62 <0.01 0.08 0.43
1n = 40 observations; for all models, P < 0.01.
2RMSE = root mean square error.