View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Composition of sow diets (as-fed basis)1,2

 
Item Gestation Lactation
Ingredient, %
    Corn 52.95 52.19
    Soybean meal (46.5% CP) 2.99 23.88
    Dried distillers grains with solubles 40.00 20.00
    Monocalcium P (21% P) 0.65 0.90
    Limestone 1.90 1.60
    Salt 0.50 0.50
    Vitamin premix3 0.50 0.50
    Trace mineral premix4 0.15 0.15
    l-Lys HCl 0.23 0.15
    Phytase5 0.13 0.13
    Total 100 100
Calculated analysis
    ME, kcal/kg 3,289 3,281
    CP, % 17.0 21.1
    Total Lys, % 0.72 1.13
    Standardized ileal digestible Lys, % 0.56 0.97
    Ca, % 0.88 0.88
    P, % 0.59 0.64
    Available P,6 % 0.50 0.48
1A total of 84 sows and litters were used to determine the effects of supplemental vitamin D3 on maternal performance, subsequent pig performance, sow and piglet serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, Ca, and P, milk vitamin D, neonatal bone mineralization, and piglet tissue vitamin D concentrations.
2Vitamin D3 premixes were mixed to contain 2,024,620 IU vitamin D3/kg of premix by blending vitamin D3 with rice hulls. Premix replaced a percentage of corn to achieve the desired treatment vitamin D3 concentrations.
3Vitamin premix provided 11,023 IU vitamin A, 1,378 IU vitamin D3, 44 IU vitamin E, 4.41mg menadione, 8.27 mg riboflavin, 27.56 mg pantothenic acid, 49.60 mg niacin, 38.5 μg vitamin B12, 551 mg choline, 0.22 mg biotin, 1.65 mg folic acid, and 4.96 mg pyridoxine per kilogram of the complete diet.
4Trace mineral premix provided 39.68 mg Mn as manganous oxide, 151.84 mg Fe ferrous sulfate, 151.84 mg Zn as zinc oxide, 15.18 mg Cu copper sulfate, 0.30 mg I as potassium iodide, and 0.30 mg Se as sodium selenite per kilogram of the complete diet.
5Natuphos 600 (BASF, Florham Park, NJ). Provided 752 phytase units/kg of diet.
6Phytase provided 0.12% available P to gestation and lactation diets.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Composition of nursery diets (as-fed basis)1,2

 
Item Phase 13 Phase 24 Phase 35
Ingredient, %
    Corn 39.56 44.72 65.76
    Soybean meal (46.5% CP) 17.33 23.41 30.67
    Dried distillers grains with solubles 5.00 15.00
    Spray-dried porcine plasma 5.00
    Spray-dried blood cells 1.25
    Spray-dried whey 25.00 10.00
    Select menhaden fish meal 4.50
    Soybean oil 3.00
    Monocalcium P (21% P) 0.85 0.15 1.03
    Limestone 1.00 0.70 0.98
    Salt 0.30 0.30 0.35
    Zinc oxide 0.39 0.25
    Trace mineral premix6 0.15 0.15 0.15
    Vitamin premix7 0.25 0.25 0.25
    l-Lys HCl 0.20 0.28 0.36
    dl-Met 0.13 0.05 0.13
    l-Thr 0.05 0.05 0.13
    l-Ile 0.10
    Phytase8 0.13 0.17 0.17
    Acidifier9 0.20
    Vitamin E, 20,000 IU 0.05
    Choline chloride 60% 0.04
    Vitamin D premix10 0.02 0.02 0.02
    Total 100 100 100
Calculated analysis
    ME, kcal/kg 3,415 3,320 3,314
    CP, % 21.2 23.1 20.4
    Standardized ileal digestible Lys, % 1.35 1.30 1.25
    Ca, % 0.80 0.70 0.68
    P, % 0.71 0.63 0.61
    Available P,11 % 0.63 0.50 0.42
1A total of 180 pigs (initially 21 d of age; PIC 327 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN) were used in a 3 × 2 split plot design for 35 d to determine the effects of maternal vitamin D3 and early nursery dietary vitamin D3 on nursery growth performance and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations.
2Vitamin D3 premixes were mixed to contain 2,024,620 IU vitamin D3/kg of premix by blending vitamin D3 with rice hulls. Premix replaced a percentage of corn to achieve the desired treatment vitamin D3 concentrations.
3Phase 1 diets were fed from d 0 to 10 and were formulated to contain either 1,800 or 18,000 IU vitamin D3/kg of the complete diet.
4Common phase 2 diets were fed from d 10 to 24 and were formulated to contain 1,800 IU vitamin D3/kg of the complete diet.
5Common phase 3 diets were fed from d 24 to 35 and were formulated to contain 1,800 IU vitamin D3/kg of the complete diet.
6Trace mineral premix provided 39.68 mg Mn as manganous oxide, 151.84 mg Fe as ferrous sulfate, 151.84 mg Zn as zinc oxide, 15.18 mg Cu as copper sulfate, 0.30 mg I as potassium iodide, and 0.30 mg Se as sodium selenite per kilogram of the complete diet.
7Vitamin premix provided 11,023 IU vitamin A, 1,378 IU vitamin D3, 44 IU vitamin E, 4.41mg menadione, 8.27 mg riboflavin, 27.56 mg pantothenic acid, 49.60 mg niacin, and 38.5 μg of vitamin B12 per kilogram of the complete diet.
8Natuphos 600 (BASF, Florham Park, NJ). Provided 780, 1,021, and 1,021 phytase units/kg of the complete diet for phase 1, 2, and 3 diets, respectively.
9Kem-Gest: phosphoric, fumaric, lactic, and citric acid (Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA).
10Vitamin D3 premixes were mixed to contain 2,204,620 IU/kg of premix by blending vitamin D3 (Rovimix D, DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, NJ) with rice hulls. Premix replaced a percentage of corn to achieve the desired treatment vitamin D3 concentrations.
11Phytase provided 0.12, 0.13, and 0.12% available P for phase 1, 2, and 3 diets, respectively.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Analyzed dietary vitamin D3 concentrations (as-fed)1

 
Nursery diets, IU/kg3
Item Maternal diets, IU/kg2 Phase 14 Phase 25 Phase 36
Formulated 1,500 3,000 6,000 1,800 18,000 1,800 1,800
Analyzed 1,870 19,300 1,855 1,911
Gestation 1,505 3,370 8,025
Lactation 1,475 3,390 6,210
1Vitamin D3 analysis was performed by DSM Nutritional Products (Parsippany, NJ), and values represent the average of 2 pooled samples per diet.
2A total of 81 sows and litters were used to determine the effects of supplemental vitamin D3 on maternal performance, subsequent pig performance, sow and piglet serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), Ca, and P, milk vitamin D, neonatal bone mineralization, and piglet tissue vitamin D concentrations.
3A total of 180 pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 21 d of age) were used in a 3 × 2 split plot design for 35 d to determine the effects of maternal vitamin D3 and early nursery dietary vitamin D3 on nursery growth performance and serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations.
4Phase 1 diets were fed from d 0 to 10.
5Common phase 2 diets were fed from d 10 to 24.
6Common phase 3 diets were fed from d 24 to 35.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

The effects of high maternal vitamin D3 on sow and litter performance1,2

 
Vitamin D3, IU/kg
P-value
Item 1,500 3,000 6,000 SEM Linear Quadratic
Sows, n 28 26 26
ADFI, kg
    d 0 to wean (d 21) 5.65 5.88 5.98 0.34 0.27 0.63
    Sow BW, kg
        Gestation
            d 0 193.1 194.1 192.1 8.8 0.91 0.89
            d 110 231.4 235.2 237.1 6.0 0.52 0.80
            Change +38.3 +41.1 +45.0 5.4 0.24 0.92
        Lactation
            d 0 221.9 227.6 224.1 6.0 0.89 0.50
            d 21 (weaning) 212.3 220.3 217.4 7.5 0.67 0.42
            Change –9.6 –7.3 –6.7 2.8 0.24 0.43
Piglets
    Litter size, no.
        Mummies 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.88 0.86
        Stillborn 0.6 0.4 0.8 0.3 0.60 0.37
        Total born alive 13.0 12.5 13.2 0.9 0.74 0.57
        Fostered 12.3 12.1 13.0 0.7 0.50 0.48
        Weaned 11.2 10.8 11.5 0.7 0.48 0.32
        Survivability,3 % 91.2 89.2 88.5 2.0 0.88 0.58
    Piglet BW, kg
        Birth 1.31 1.36 1.34 0.04 0.63 0.47
        Weaning 5.31 5.55 5.52 0.17 0.43 0.42
1A total of 84 sows (PIC 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN) and their litters were used. There were 2 sows removed from the 3,000 IU/kg vitamin D3 treatment because of lameness and illness. There were 2 sows removed from the 6,000 IU/kg vitamin D3 treatment because of late-term abortion and farrowing complications.
2Sow group was used as a random effect in the statistical model.
3Survivability was calculated by dividing the weaned litter size by the fostered litter size.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

The effects of maternal and early nursery vitamin D3 supplementation on nursery pig growth performance (d 0 to 35)1

 
Item Maternal vitamin D3, IU/kg
P-value
Vitamin 1,500
3,000
6,000
Maternal
D32: 1,800 18,000 1,800 18,000 1,800 18,000 SEM Maternal × diet Linear Quadratic Diet
ADG, g 417 419 391 399 416 396 13 0.56 0.56 0.12 0.75
ADFI, g 597 618 577 565 602 576 17 0.39 0.47 0.06 0.69
G:F 0.70 0.68 0.68 0.71 0.69 0.69 0.01 0.17 0.96 0.71 0.90
1A total of 180 mixed-sex pigs (initially 21 d of age; PIC 327 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN) were weaned from the first sow group and used in a 3 × 2 split plot design for 35 d to determine the effects of maternal and early nursery dietary vitamin D3 on growth performance.
2Early dietary vitamin D3 treatments (IU/kg). Phase 1 diets were fed from d 0 to 10. Common phase 2 and 3 diets were fed from d 10 to 21 and d 21 to 35, respectively. Common diets were formulated to contain 1,800 IU/kg vitamin D3. Treatments are expressed as IU/kg of the complete diet.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Effects of high maternal vitamin D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), Ca, P, milk vitamin D, neonatal bone ash content, and bone density1,2

 
Maternal vitamin D3, IU/kg
P-value
Item 1,500 3,000 6,000 SEM Linear Quadratic
Sow
    25(OH)D3, ng/mL
        d 0 30.1 26.2 32.0 4.7 0.54 0.27
        d 100 33.2 36.5 57.9 4.7 <0.01 0.23
        Farrowing 30.1 35.4 56.9 4.7 <0.01 0.38
        Weaning 39.3 52.5 66.3 4.7 <0.01 0.31
    Milk vitamin D3, ng/g
        Farrowing 1.02 2.33 3.97 0.31 <0.01 0.37
        d 10 0.78 2.33 3.73 0.31 <0.01 0.13
        Weaning 1.02 1.98 3.53 0.31 <0.01 0.73
Piglet
    25(OH)D3, ng/mL
        Birth 4.5 5.9 9.4 0.8 <0.01 0.03
        d 10 4.4 6.2 10.6 0.8 <0.01 <0.01
        Weaning 5.6 8.0 14.0 0.8 <0.01 <0.01
    Bone ash content, %
        Second rib 43.6 43.6 43.5 0.8 0.95 0.96
        Femur 44.9 44.5 44.8 0.6 0.76 0.66
    Bone density, g/mL
        Second rib 1.30 1.30 1.31 0.02 0.64 0.56
    Tissue vitamin D3, ng/g
        Kidney 1.68 0.10 1.37 0.84 0.99 0.09
        Liver 0.04 0.04 0.19 0.05 0.08 0.16
1A total of 84 sows (PIC 1050, PIC, Hendersonville, TN) and their litters were used to determine the effects of high maternal vitamin D3 on sow and pig performance, serum 25(OH)D3, Ca, P, milk vitamin D3, neonatal bone mineralization, and tissue vitamin D3.
2Day effects were P < 0.01, P = 0.56, and P < 0.01 for sow 25(OH)D3, milk vitamin D3, and piglet 25(OH)D3, respectively. Maternal × day interactions were P < 0.01, P = 0.87, and P = 0.13 for sow 25(OH)D3, milk vitamin D3, and piglet 25(OH)D3, respectively.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

The effects of maternal and early nursery dietary vitamin D3 on nursery pig serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3; ng/mL)1,2

 
Item Maternal vitamin D3, IU/kg
P-value
Vitamin 1,500
3,000
6,000
Maternal × diet Maternal
D33: 1,800 18,000 1,800 18,000 1,800 18,000 SEM Linear Quadratic Diet
d 0 6.3 10.5 17.6 3.1 <0.01 0.91
d 10 20.0 53.5 21.9 49.6 24.0 60.9 2.2 0.01 <0.01 0.04 <0.01
d 21 13.2 26.7 13.6 23.9 14.4 31.6 2.2 0.01 0.16 0.15 <0.01
d 35 16.7 18.0 14.5 19.3 14.9 19.5 2.2 0.42 0.94 0.83 0.04
1A total of 180 mixed-sex pigs (initially 21 d of age; PIC 327 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN) were weaned from the first sow group and used in a 3 × 2 split plot design for 35 d to determine the effects of maternal and early nursery dietary vitamin D3 on growth performance. Ten pigs per treatment were bled to determine serum 25(OH)D3.
2Ten pigs per treatment were bled to determine serum 25(OH)D3. Day effect, P < 0.01, and maternal × diet × day interaction, P = 0.32.
3Early vitamin D3 treatments (IU/kg). Phase 1 diets were fed from d 0 to 10. Common phase 2 and 3 diets were fed from d 10 to 21 and d 21 to 35, respectively. Common diets were formulated to contain 1,800 IU/kg vitamin D3.