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Analyzed nutrient composition of medium-oil corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; as-fed basis)

 
Item Medium-oil DDGS1
DM, % 93.70
CP, % 30.10
Ether extract, % 7.63
Crude fiber, % 10.58
Ash, % 4.53
ADF, % 19.53
NDF, % 36.47
Starch, % 7.6
P, % 0.92
Essential AA, %
    Arg 1.12
    His 0.75
    Ile 1.11 (1.01)
    Leu 3.38 (3.17)
    Lys 0.92 (0.78)
    Met 0.53 (0.58)
    Thr 1.03 (1.06)
    Trp 0.23 (0.21)
    Val 1.46 (1.35)
1Values represent the mean of 3 samples analyzed in duplicate. Diets were prepared using values in parentheses (AA) and standardized ileal digestibility values from Stein (2007).



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Fatty acid analysis of corn medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)

 
Item Medium-oil DDGS
Myristic acid (C14:0), % 0.08
Palmitic acid (C16:0), % 13.69
Palmitoleic acid (C16:1), % 0.15
Margaric acid (C17:0), % 0.11
Stearic acid (C18:0), % 1.86
Oleic acid (C18:1 cis-9), % 22.50
Vaccenic acid (C18:1n-7), % 1.25
Linoleic acid (C18:2n-6), % 56.75
α-Linoleic acid (C18:3n-3), % 1.80
Arachidic acid (C20:0), % 0.41
Gadoleic acid (C20:1), % 0.24
Eicosadienoic acid (C20:2), % 0.08
Arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), % 0.05
Other fatty acids, % 1.00
Total SFA,1 % 16.15
Total MUFA,2 % 24.19
Total PUFA,3 % 58.70
Total trans fatty acids,4 % 0.15
UFA:SFA ratio5 5.13
PUFA:SFA ratio6 3.63
Iodine value,7 g/100g 122.7
1Total saturated fatty acids = ([C8:0] + [C10:0] + [C12:0] + [C14:0] + [C16:0] + [C17:0] + [C18:0] +[C20:0] + [C22:0] + [C24:0]); brackets indicate concentration.
2Total monounsaturated fatty acids = ([C14:1] + [C16:1] + [C18:1 cis-9] + [C18:1n-7] + [C20:1] + [C24:1]); brackets indicate concentration.
3Total polyunsaturated fatty acids = ([C18:2n-6] + [C18:3n-3] + [C18:3n-6] + [C20:2] + [C20:4n-6]); brackets indicate concentration.
4Total trans fatty acids = ([C18:1 trans] + [C18:2 trans] + [C18:3 trans]); brackets indicate concentration.
5UFA = unsaturated fatty acids. UFA:SFA = (total MUFA + total PUFA)/total SFA.
6PUFA:SFA = total PUFA/total SFA.
7Calculated as iodine value = [C16:1] × 0.95 + [C18:1] × 0.86 + [C18:2] × 1.732 + [C18:3] × 2.616 + [C20:1] × 0.785 + [C22:1] × 0.723; brackets indicate concentration.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Diet composition, d 0 to 33 (Exp. 1; as-fed basis)1

 
Item Medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), %
0 15 30 45
Ingredient, %
    Corn 79.00 66.83 54.80 42.45
    Soybean meal (46.5% CP) 18.48 15.84 13.04 10.41
    Medium-oil DDGS 15.00 30.00 45.00
    Monocalcium P (21% P) 0.90 0.55 0.20
    Limestone 0.89 1.03 1.17 1.32
    Salt 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35
    Vitamin premix2 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
    Trace mineral premix3 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
    l-Lysine HCl 0.18 0.21 0.24 0.27
    l-Threonine 0.01
Total 100 100 100 100
Calculated composition
    Standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids,4 %
        Lys 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
        Ile:Lys 68 73 77 81
        Leu:Lys 165 190 215 239
        Met:Lys 29 34 38 43
        Met and Cys:Lys 60 65 70 76
        Thr:Lys 61 66 71 76
        Trp:Lys 19 19 19 19
        Valine:Lys 80 87 93 101
    Total Lys, % 0.90 0.93 0.96 0.99
    ME, kcal/kg 3,334 3,343 3,352 3,356
    SID Lys:ME, g/Mcal 2.40 2.39 2.39 2.38
    CP, % 15.48 17.32 19.11 20.95
    Ca, % 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.56
    P, % 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.51
    Available P, % 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.28
Analyzed composition (as fed), %
    DM 89.4 89.8 90.4 90.9
    CP 15.0 17.2 19.7 22.4
    Ether extract 3.5 3.6 4.6 5.8
    Crude fiber 2.0 2.5 3.3 4.6
    ADF 3.2 5.1 6.2 7.1
    NDF 7.4 9.1 11.4 15.2
1Diets were fed in meal form from d 0 to 33 of the experiment.
2Provided per kilogram of premix: 4,409,249 IU vitamin A, 551,156 IU vitamin D3, 17,637 IU vitamin E, 1,764 mg vitamin K, 3,307 mg riboflavin, 11,023 mg pantothenic acid, 19,841 mg niacin, and 15.4 mg vitamin B12.
3Provided per kilogram of premix: 26.5 g Mn from manganese oxide, 110 g Fe from iron sulfate, 110 g Zn from zinc sulfate, 11 g Cu from copper sulfate, 198 mg I from calcium iodate, and 198 mg Se from sodium selenite.
4Amino acid and ME values used in diet formulation for the medium-oil DDGS were derived from Stein (2007).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Diet composition, d 33 to 67 (Exp. 1; as-fed basis)1

 
Item Medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), %
0 15 30 45
Ingredient, %
    Corn 82.71 70.55 58.52 45.99
    Soybean meal (46.5% CP) 14.96 12.31 9.52 6.90
    Medium-oil DDGS 15.00 30.00 45.00
    Monocalcium P (21% P) 0.75 0.40 0.05
    Limestone 0.87 1.00 1.14 1.30
    Salt 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35
    Vitamin premix2 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
    Trace mineral premix3 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
    l-Lysine HCl 0.16 0.19 0.23 0.26
    l-Threonine 0.01
Total 100 100 100 100
Calculated composition
    Standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids,4 %
        Lys 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70
        Ile:Lys 70 75 79 84
        Leu:Lys 177 206 234 262
        Met:Lys 31 36 41 47
        Met and Cys:Lys 64 70 76 82
        Thr:Lys 64 68 74 80
        Trp:Lys 19 19 19 19
        Valine:Lys 83 91 99 107
    Total Lys, % 0.79 0.82 0.85 0.88
    ME, kcal/kg 3,343 3,352 3,360 3,356
    SID Lys:ME, g/Mcal 2.09 2.09 2.09 2.09
    CP, % 14.15 15.98 17.77 19.60
    Ca, % 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.54
    P, % 0.49 0.47 0.45 0.50
    Available P, % 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.27
Analyzed composition (as fed), %
    DM 89.5 89.6 89.7 90.3
    CP 15.4 14.2 16.1 15.5
    Ether extract 3.2 3.4 4.4 4.2
    Crude fiber 2.0 2.1 2.7 2.5
    ADF 3.5 6.0 5.4 5.6
    NDF 6.9 7.8 10.3 10.0
1Diets were fed in meal form from d 33 to 67 of the experiment.
2Provided per kilogram of premix: 4,409,249 IU vitamin A, 551,156 IU vitamin D3, 17,637 IU vitamin E, 1,764 mg vitamin K, 3,307 mg riboflavin, 11,023 mg pantothenic acid, 19,841 mg niacin, and 15.4 mg vitamin B12.
3Provided per kilogram of premix: 26.5 g Mn from manganese oxide, 110 g Fe from iron sulfate, 110 g Zn from zinc sulfate, 11 g Cu from copper sulfate, 198 mg I from calcium iodate, and 198 mg Se from sodium selenite.
4Amino acid and ME values used in diet formulation for the medium-oil DDGS were derived from Stein (2007).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Diet composition, Exp. 2, as-fed basis

 
Ingredient, % Corn basal diet
Corn 96.90
Limestone 2.30
Salt 0.40
Vitamin premix1 0.25
Trace mineral premix2 0.15
1Provided per kilogram of premix: 4,409,249 IU vitamin A, 551,156 IU vitamin D3, 17,637 IU vitamin E, 1,764 mg vitamin K, 3,307 mg riboflavin, 11,023 mg pantothenic acid, 19,841 mg niacin, and 15.4 mg vitamin B12.
2Provided per kilogram of premix: 26.5 g Mn from manganese oxide, 110 g Fe from iron sulfate, 110 g Zn from zinc sulfate, 11 g Cu from copper sulfate, 198 mg I from calcium iodate, and 198 mg Se from sodium selenite. Vitamins and minerals are diluted by 50% in the test diets.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Effect of medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles on finishing pig growth performance and carcass characteristics (Exp. 1)1

 
Medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles, %
SEM Probability, P <
0% 15% 30% 45% Linear Quadratic
Initial BW, kg 68.9 68.9 68.9 68.9 0.9 0.99 0.99
d 0 to 67
    ADG, kg 0.875 0.848 0.838 0.817 0.010 0.01 0.77
    ADFI, kg 2.739 2.709 2.681 2.664 0.034 0.10 0.84
    G:F 0.320 0.313 0.313 0.307 0.004 0.02 0.99
Final BW, kg 127.3 125.8 125.2 124.0 1.1 0.03 0.87
Carcass data
    HCW, kg 93.39 91.43 90.11 88.52 0.83 0.001 0.82
    Carcass yield,2 % 73.98 73.16 72.36 71.84 0.16 0.001 0.35
    Backfat depth,3 mm 19.4 19.8 19.4 18.7 0.40 0.17 0.15
    Loin depth,3 mm 61.0 60.0 59.7 57.9 0.81 0.01 0.58
    Lean,3 % 53.1 52.8 52.8 52.7 0.23 0.32 0.65
    Jowl IV,4 mg/g 70.2 71.1 73.7 76.3 0.27 0.001 0.01
1A total of 288 mixed-sex pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 68.9 kg BW) were used in the 67-d trial with 8 pigs per pen and 9 replications (pens) per treatment.
2Percentage yield was calculated by dividing HCW by live weight obtained at the farm before transport to the packing plant.
3Adjusted by using HCW as a covariate.
4IV = iodine value.



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Apparent total tract digestibility of corn and medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; as-fed basis)1

 
Item Corn Medium-oil DDGS SEM
Digestibility, %
    DM 93.3a 70.5b 1.94
    GE 91.1a 73.2b 1.80
    CP 85.5a 83.1a 1.35
    Ether extract (oil) 21.8a 61.7b 3.53
    ADF 59.4a 77.5b 2.20
    NDF 59.9a 67.8b 3.23
    Crude fiber 47.4a 67.4b 2.29
a,bWithin a row, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1A total of 12 pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 25.6 kg BW) were used in two 6-wk Latin square design studies to provide 12 observations per treatment.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 8.

Caloric efficiencies using published and observed energy values for medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)

 
Medium-oil DDGS, %
SEM Probability, P <
0% 15% 30% 45% Linear Quadratic
Observed values1
    Caloric efficiency, Mcal/kg
        DE 10.9 11.0 11.0 11.1 0.1 0.31 0.91
        ME 10.5 10.6 10.5 10.6 0.1 0.66 0.90
        NE 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.8 0.1 0.88 0.90
Published values2
    Caloric efficiency, Mcal/kg
        DE 10.9 11.1 11.2 11.4 0.1 0.01 0.93
        ME 10.5 10.7 10.7 10.9 0.1 0.02 0.93
        NE 7.8 7.9 7.8 7.9 0.1 0.62 0.90
1Observed DE was determined in the digestibility portion of this study (Exp. 2); ME and NE were calculated based on Eq. [1–6] and [1–7] from NRC, 2012.
2 Calculations used the published DE, ME, and NE values for medium-oil DDGS (>6 and <9% oil) in NRC, 2012.



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Energy prediction equations

 
Item Equation 7.63% oil DDGS1
NRC (2012)
    ME2 (1.00 × DE) – (0.68 × CP) 3,153
    NE3 (0.726 × ME) + (1.33 × EE) + (0.39 × Starch) – (0.62 × CP) – (0.83 × ADF) 2,069
Anderson et al. (2012)
    DE –2,161 + (1.39 × GE) – (20.70 × NDF) – (40.30 × EE) 3,291
    ME (0.94 × GE) – (23.45 × NDF) – (70.23 × ash) 3,124
Pedersen et al. (2007)
    DE (1) –12,637 – (128.27 × ash) + (25.38 × CP) – (115.72 × EE) – (138.02 × ADF) + (3.569 × GE) 4,242
    DE (2) –9,929 – (180.38 × ash) – (106.82 × EE) – (120.44 × ADF) + (3.202 × GE) 5,341
    ME (1) –11,128 – (124.99 × ash) + (35.76 × CP) – (63.40 × EE) – (150.92 × ADF) + (14.85 × NDF) + (3.023 × GE) 3,583
    ME (2) –4,212 – (266.38 × ash) – (108.35 × ADF) + (1.911 × GE) 4,783
1DDGS = dried distillers grains with solubles.
2Refers to Eq. [1–6] from NRC (2012) to calculate ME.
3Refers to Eq. [1–7] from NRC (2012) to calculate NE.