View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Ingredient and nutrient composition of the experimental diets1

 
Item Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 62
Ingredient, %
    Corn 57.04 63.24 61.50 63.50 65.65 65.05
    Soybean meal, 46.5% CP 19.75 13.85 10.25 8.25 6.20 6.90
    DDGS3 20.00 20.00 25.00 25.00 25.00 25.00
    Animal-vegetable blend4 0.60 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
    Calcium carbonate 1.35 1.35 1.25 1.30 1.25 1.25
    Salt 0.40 0.35 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
    Trace mineral premix5 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.08
    Vitamin premix6 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04
    l-Lys 0.47 0.41 0.38 0.34 0.32 0.23
    l-Thr 0.07 0.05 0.02
    Met premix7 0.07 0.01
    Copper sulfate, 25.2% Cu 0.05 0.05
    Zinc bacitracin8 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
    Phytase9 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01
    Microbial feed additive10 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03
    Total 100 100 100 100 100 100
Calculated analysis
    Standardized ileal digestible AA, %
        Lys 1.10 0.91 0.82 0.74 0.67 0.63
        Met + Cys:Lys 57 58 62 67 70 78
    Thr:Lys 59 61 61 62 63 70
    Trp:Lys 15 15 15 15 15 17
    Total Lys, % 1.22 1.02 0.92 0.84 0.77 0.71
    CP, % 19.27 16.92 16.39 15.6 14.77 14.97
    ME, kcal/kg 3,190 3,201 3,221 3,227 3,234 3,232
    Ca, % 0.61 0.59 0.54 0.56 0.53 0.53
    P, % 0.42 0.4 0.41 0.41 0.4 0.4
    Available P, % 0.31 0.29 0.26 0.26 0.24 0.23
1Four experimental diets were fed: positive control containing less than 1 mg kg-1 deoxynivalenol (DON), negative control containing 4 mg kg-1 DON, negative control diet plus Defusion (Akey, Lewisburg, OH), and negative control plus Integral (Alltech, Nicholasville, KY.) Defusion was added at the expense of corn at the rate of 0.25% for phases 1 and 2 and 0.50% for phases 3, 4, 5, and 6. Integral was added at the expense of corn at a rate of 0.1% for phases 1 and 2 and 0.2% for phases 3, 4, 5, and 6. Inclusion of the Defusion and Integral products for the respective phases was based on the respective manufacturers’ recommendations.
2Each phase was fed in meal form for 21 d with the exception of phase 6, which was only fed for 10 d due to a shortage of contaminated dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS).
3Clean DDGS (DDGS-corn LP, Goldfield, IA) and contaminated DDGS (Poet, Manchester, IN) source. Clean (0.81 mg kg-1 DON) and contaminated DDGS (18.6 mg kg-1 DON) were used at the same level of inclusion in the positive and negative control diets, respectively.
4Lipid source.
5Provided per kilogram of complete diet: 75 mg Zn from zinc oxide, 60 mg Fe from ferrous sulfate, 3 mg Mn from manganese oxide, 4.5 mg Cu from copper sulfate, 210 µg I from ethylenediamine dihydriodide, and 300 µg Se from sodium selenite.
6Provided per kilogram of complete diet: 2,500 IU vitamin A, 450 IU vitamin D, 150 IU vitamin E, 1.2 mg menadione, 9.6 mg niacin, 3 mg riboflavin, 9.6 mg d-pantothenic acid, and 15 µg vitamin B12.
7Alimet (Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO) supplies 88% dl-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio) butanoic acid.
8Albac 50 (Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY).
9OptiPhos 2000 (Enzyvia LLC, Sheridan, IN) provided 600, 400, and 200 phytase units/kg of final diet in phases 1, 2 to 4, and 5 to 6, respectively.
10DSM Nutritional Products (Heerlen, The Netherlands).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Mycotoxin analysis of experimental diets (mg kg-1)1

 
PC2
NC3
PB4
YP5
Item Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 5 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 5 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 5 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 5
Deoxynivalenol 0.2 0.5 0.7 3.7 5.7 5.2 4.6 5.1 4.5 0.25 5.4 5.6
Zearalenone6 0.1 0.1 ND 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 ND 0.6 0.6
Fumonisin B16 ND 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.5 1.2 0.7 ND 1.3 1.1
1Feed samples from each treatment were obtained from every feed delivery, and samples collected during phases 2, 3, and 5 were sent to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Ames, IA) and were analyzed for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2, vomitoxin, T-2 toxin, fumonisin B1, zearalenone, and ochratoxin. Analytical values for mycotoxins not listed were all below detectable concentrations.
2Positive control (<1 mg kg-1 deoxynivalenol).
3Negative control (4 mg kg-1 deoxynivalenol).
4Negative control + preservative blend (Akey, Lewisburg, OH).
5Negative control + yeast product (Alltech, Nicholasville, KY).
6ND: measured but not detected (zearalenone, <0.1 mg kg-1; and fumonisin, <0.1 mg kg-1).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS) and efficacy of mycotoxin binders on finishing pig performance1

 
Item PC2 NC3 PB4 YP5 SEM P-value
BW, kg
    d 0 22.71 22.82 23.23 22.79 0.93 0.49
    d 21 36.88 35.75 36.35 35.82 1.17 0.15
    d 42 52.58 50.99 51.71 50.98 1.49 0.22
    d 63 71.01a 67.71b,c 69.74a,b 67.35c 1.50 0.004
    d 84 88.06a 84.47b 85.38a,b 83.65b 1.97 0.05
    d 105 102.8a 97.3c 100.6a,b 98.0b,c 2.0 0.005
    d 115 (market) 108.4a 99.1b 106.4a 102.3b 2.3 <0.001
d 0 to 42
    ADG, kg 0.71a 0.67b 0.68b 0.67b 0.02 0.05
    ADFI, kg 1.45a 1.37b 1.39b 1.37b 0.03 0.01
    G:F 0.508 0.510 0.506 0.510 0.009 0.97
d 42 to 84
    ADG, kg 0.84 0.80 0.80 0.79 0.02 0.11
    ADFI, kg 2.25a 2.10b 2.15a,b 2.10b 0.05 0.01
    G:F 0.377 0.381 0.376 0.370 0.007 0.66
d 84 to 115
    ADG, kg 0.63a 0.39c 0.65a 0.56b 0.03 <0.001
    ADFI, kg 2.18a 1.85c 2.15ab 2.06b 0.05 < 0.001
    G:F 0.292a 0.200b 0.302a 0.269a 0.023 <0.001
d 0 to 115
    ADG, kg 0.75a 0.66c 0.72a 0.69b 0.01 <0.001
    ADFI, kg 1.96a 1.79c 1.89a,b 1.85bc 0.04 0.001
    G:F 0.381a,b 0.372c 0.383a 0.375b,c 0.003 0.02
a–dWithin a row, values not sharing a common superscript differ significantly (P < 0.05).
1A total of 1,040 growing pigs (initial BW, 22.9 kg) were used in a 115-d study to determine the effects of DON-contaminated DDGS and efficacy of mycotoxin binders on finishing pig performance. Pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 26 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment.
2Positive control (<1 mg kg-1 DON).
3Negative control (4 mg kg-1 DON).
4Negative control + preservative blend (Akey; Lewisburg, OH).
5Negative control + yeast product (Alltech; Nicholasville, KY).