View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Composition of the experimental diets for Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, as-fed basis1

 
Item Exp. 12
Exp. 23
0% Lipids 6% Lipids 0% Lipids 2.5% Lipids 5.0% Lipids 7.5% Lipids
Ingredient, %
    Corn, yellow dent 65.31 55.02 66.56 62.47 58.44 53.97
    Soybean meal, 47.5% CP 30.23 34.5 29.34 30.90 32.41 34.35
    Lipids 0 6 0 2.5 5.0 7.5
    l-Lys·HCl 0.37 0.38 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.38
    dl-Met 0.14 0.18 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18
    l-Thr 0.14 0.15 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15
    Monocalcium phosphate, 21% P 1.55 1.53 1.35 1.35 1.34 1.34
    Limestone 1.09 1.07 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96
    Salt 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
    Copper sulfate, 25.2% Cu 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08
    Vitamin premix4 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04
    Trace mineral premix5 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
    Titanium dioxide6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Analyzed composition, %
    Ether extract 2.68 7.27 2.78 4.87 6.94 9.61
    Titanium dioxide6 0.40 0.51 0.42 0.46 0.50 0.43
1Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1998) requirements.
2Lipid sources were soybean oil (0.3% FFA and iodine value [IV] = 129.4), soybean–cottonseed acid oil blend (70.5% FFA and IV = 112.9), choice white grease (0.6% FFA and IV = 74.8), and choice white acid grease (56.0% FFA and IV = 79.0) and were included in diets 1 to 6 in different ratios.
3Lipid sources were poultry fat and acidulated poultry fat.
4Supplied per kilogram of complete diet: 8,227 IU of vitamin A, 1,172 IU of vitamin D3 as D-activated animal sterol, 47.0 IU of vitamin E, 0.03 mg of vitamin B12, 5.8 mg of riboflavin, 35.2 mg of niacin, 23.5 mg of d-pantothenic acid as calcium pantothenate, 3.8 mg of vitamin K as menadione dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfate, 1.7 mg of folic acid, and 0.23 mg of d-biotin.
5Supplied per kilogram of complete diet: 16.5 mg Cu as CuSO4, 0.30 mg I as ethylenediamine dihydriodide, 165 mg Fe as FeSO4, 40 mg Mn as MnSO4, 0.30 mg Se as Na2SeO3, and 165 mg Zn as ZnO.
6Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible maker.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Chemical composition of experimental lipid sources, as-fed basis

 
Item Exp. 1
Exp. 2
Soy oil Soy acid oil CWG1 CWG acid Poultry fat Acidulated poultry fat
Moisture,2 % 0.4 0.6 0.2 10.4 0.4 1.2
Insoluble impurities,3 % 0 0 0 0.26 0 0
Unsaponifiable matter,4 % 0.54 2.6 0.37 1.8 1.3 2.2
Free fatty acids,5 % 0.3 70.5 0.6 56.0 1.9 37.8
Iodine value6 112.9 129.4 74.8 79.0 85.8 85.5
Anisidine value7 12.4 5.8 0 15.3 0 10.1
Peroxide value, mEq/kg
    Initial8 33.6 1.8 1.8 7.0 0.1 0.1
    4 h AOM9 103.6 1.0 2.6 4.0 0.1 0.1
    24 h AOM9 543.0 2.0 6.6 1.4 0.1 0.4
1Choice white grease.
2Method Ca2a-45 (AOCS, 2009).
3Method Ca3a-46 (AOCS, 2011a).
4Method 933.08 (AOAC, 1933).
5Method 940.28 (AOAC, 1940).
6Method 920.159 (AOAC, 1920).
7Method Cd18-90 (AOCS, 2011b).
8Method 969.33 (AOAC, 1969).
9AOM, active oxygen method (IUPAC, 1979).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Percentage contribution of experimental lipid sources to supplemental lipids for the dietary treatments, Exp. 11

 
Treatment FFA,% IV Percentage of inclusion
Soy oil Soy acid oil CWG2 CWG acid
1 0.6 74.8 100
2 54 78.8 5 95
3 0.4 102.1 50 50
4 54 97.8 12 38 2 48
5 0.3 129.4 100
6 54 116.8 24 76
1Lipid sources were combined to create 6 diets in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of FFA (low or high) and 3 degrees of lipid saturation (low, medium, or high iodine value [IV]).
2Choice white grease.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Effects of FFA concentration and iodine value (IV) of supplemental lipids (6%) on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility of lipids and GE in nursery pigs in Exp. 11

 
Item No lipid control 0.4% FFA
54% FFA
IV
IV
P-value
74.8 102.1 129.4 78.8 97.8 116.8 SEM Fat2 IV FFA
BW, kg
    Initial 9.33 9.30 9.30 9.26 9.34 9.34 9.34 0.03
    d 73 12.36 12.64 12.44 12.39 12.94 12.59 12.46 0.18 0.239 0.144 0.279
    d 14 16.23 16.73 16.34 16.41 16.99 16.90 16.87 0.28 0.122 0.684 0.104
    d 21 21.01 21.45 21.07 20.62 21.35 21.91 21.69 0.40 0.363 0.678 0.079
ADG, kg
    d 0 to 73 0.439 0.479 0.451 0.443 0.522 0.473 0.454 0.026 0.239 0.144 0.279
    d 8 to 14 0.554 0.584 0.557 0.575 0.578 0.616 0.629 0.030 0.313 0.792 0.218
    d 15 to 21 0.697 0.689 0.695 0.646 0.639 0.731 0.704 0.029 0.798 0.206 0.485
    d 0 to 21 0.560 0.581 0.563 0.541 0.576 0.603 0.592 0.019 0.363 0.678 0.079
ADFI, kg (as-fed basis)
    d 0 to 7 0.667 0.628 0.593 0.616 0.636 0.610 0.600 0.024 0.044 0.402 0.925
    d 8 to 14 0.867 0.797 0.784 0.779 0.848 0.845 0.803 0.032 0.081 0.640 0.147
    d 15 to 214,5 1.082 1.020 1.033 0.909 0.955 1.090 1.042 0.040 0.085 0.101 0.215
    d 0 to 21 0.872 0.815 0.803 0.768 0.813 0.849 0.815 0.025 0.018 0.368 0.159
G:F
    d 0 to 7 0.660 0.765 0.757 0.728 0.821 0.777 0.755 0.033 0.003 0.315 0.225
    d 8 to 144,6 0.638 0.736 0.713 0.735 0.685 0.728 0.785 0.020 <0.001 0.054 0.773
    d 15 to 21 0.645 0.675 0.671 0.688 0.665 0.672 0.678 0.019 0.102 0.765 0.749
    d 0 to 21 0.646 0.716 0.706 0.715 0.711 0.715 0.732 0.011 <0.001 0.484 0.409
Apparent total tract digestibility,%
    Lipids6,7 29.7 73.2 69.4 67.2 64.1 66.0 64.7 0.9 <0.001 0.002 <0.001
    GE 81.7 83.2 83.4 82.6 80.3 81.4 81.1 0.7 0.690 0.644 <0.001
1Pigs were allowed an adjustment period of 14 d after weaning before initiation of the study. Values represent least squares means of 9 pens with 3 pigs per pen. Initial body weight was used as a covariate.
2Probability values for the effect of lipid supplementation (6% added lipids vs. no added lipids diet).
3Linear effect of IV (P = 0.06).
4Interaction (P = 0.06).
5Quadratic effect of IV (P = 0.035).
6Linear effect of IV (P ≤ 0.022).
7Interaction (P < 0.001).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Effects of lipid source and level of supplemental lipids on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility of lipids and GE in nursery pigs in Exp. 21

 
Item No lipid control Lipid source
Poultry fat, %
Acidulated poultry fat, %
P-value2
2.5 5.0 7.5 2.5 5.0 7.5 SEM Level Source Interaction
BW, kg
    Initial 7.07 7.03 7.06 7.17 7.05 7.05 7.04 0.05 0.428 0.401 0.370
    d 7 8.35 8.27 8.51 8.39 8.45 8.49 8.04 0.16 0.244 0.625 0.309
    d 14 11.06 11.44 11.49 11.60 11.50 11.43 10.86 0.29 0.673 0.302 0.377
    d 213 14.60 15.51 15.46 15.80 15.34 15.66 14.70 0.29 0.575 0.149 0.091
    d 284 18.39 20.03 20.05 20.18 19.89 20.23 19.30 0.35 0.539 0.342 0.321
ADG, kg
    d 0 to 7 0.184 0.178 0.206 0.174 0.203 0.204 0.141 0.021 0.075 0.810 0.425
    d 8 to 14 0.387 0.452 0.425 0.456 0.435 0.419 0.403 0.033 0.816 0.363 0.798
    d 15 to 214 0.491 0.583 0.561 0.607 0.549 0.629 0.548 0.029 0.586 0.791 0.090
    d 22 to 284 0.542 0.645 0.655 0.626 0.643 0.653 0.658 0.021 0.831 0.611 0.668
    d 0 to 284 0.405 0.464 0.464 0.465 0.459 0.470 0.437 0.012 0.441 0.406 0.411
ADFI, kg (as-fed basis)
    d 0 to 75 0.354 0.377 0.350 0.294 0.397 0.348 0.291 0.016 <0.001 0.709 0.740
    d 8 to 146 0.583 0.667 0.623 0.586 0.671 0.593 0.580 0.028 0.021 0.644 0.855
    d 15 to 217 0.789 0.861 0.804 0.799 0.890 0.818 0.781 0.043 0.001 0.476 0.590
    d 22 to 286 0.938 1.019 0.969 0.943 1.046 0.967 0.956 0.031 0.009 0.752 0.961
    d 0 to 287 0.663 0.731 0.684 0.656 0.749 0.678 0.650 0.022 <0.001 0.708 1.000
G:F
    d 0 to 7 0.517 0.467 0.574 0.567 0.507 0.578 0.469 0.056 0.314 0.675 0.483
    d 8 to 14 0.664 0.678 0.696 0.776 0.642 0.686 0.697 0.042 0.247 0.259 0.758
    d 15 to 215,6 0.620 0.619 0.701 0.756 0.617 0.762 0.711 0.028 0.000 0.807 0.196
    d 22 to 285 0.583 0.624 0.680 0.666 0.618 0.679 0.693 0.025 0.043 0.768 0.772
    d 0 to 285,7 0.615 0.616 0.681 0.708 0.614 0.695 0.677 0.015 <0.001 0.587 0.357
Apparent total tract digestibility,%
    Lipids5 17.8 49.8 71.8 78.7 50.6 70.2 75.8 1.6 <0.001 0.333 0.470
    GE5,7 76.1 76.3 83.2 84.8 76.6 83.6 84.0 1.0 <0.001 0.935 0.789
1Pigs were allowed an adjustment period of 7 d after weaning before initiation of the study. Values represent least squares means of 9 pens with 4 pigs per pen.
2Probability values represent statistical analysis of data excluding the no-lipid control diet and represents the main effects and interaction effects of the 2 × 3 factorial with 2 sources of lipids and 3 inclusion levels (2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5%).
3Linear effect of level of lipid (0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, or 7.5%) inclusion (P < 0.10).
4Linear effect of level of lipid (0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, or 7.5%) inclusion (P ≤ 0.01).
5Linear effect of level of lipid (0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, or 7.5%) inclusion (P < 0.001).
6Quadratic effect of level of lipid (0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, or 7.5%) inclusion (P < 0.05).
7Quadratic effect of level of lipid (0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, or 7.5%) inclusion (P < 0.01).