View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Ingredients and chemical composition of the experimental diets fed to rabbits

 
Item Content
Ingredient, % as-fed
    Barley 14.5
    Wheat 15.0
    Soybean meal 12.0
    Sunflower meal 11.0
    Beet pulp 12.0
    Dehydrated alfalfa 33.0
    Carbonate calcium 0.8
    Dicalcium phosphate 0.6
    Mineral-vitamin premix1 0.5
    NaCl 0.5
    L-Lys/HCl, 98% 0.1
Chemical composition
    DM, % 91.4
    Ash, % DM 11.4
    CP, % DM 19.1
    Crude fat, % DM 1.5
    NDF, % DM 33.6
    ADF, % DM 20.1
    ADL, % DM 6.4
1Contents (per kilogram of premix): vitamin A (retinol acetate): 8000 IU; vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol): 600 IU; vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate): 5 mg; Cu (copper sulfate): 11 mg; Zn (zinc oxide): 30 mg; Mn (manganous oxide): 2 mg; I (potassium iodide): 0.20 mg; Co (cobalt carbonate): 0.20 mg; and Se (sodium selenite): 0.05 mg.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Percent mortality throughout the experiment of rabbit pups (%)1,2

 
Item d 1 to 14 d 14 to 35 d 35 to 49 d 49 to 80 d 1 to 803
FM 3.8 (237) 2.4 (212) 5.8 (191) 4.5 (110) 15.5
NF 5.4 (279) 3.2 (246) 9.5 (220) 6.7 (120) 22.8
FF 4.8 (270) 1.3 (238) 2.8 (215) 0.8 (132) 9.3
FFab 7.8 (282) 3.7 (240) 4.7 (211) 3.9 (127) 13.2
P-value4 0.253 0.383 0.035 0.109 0.003
1Had free access to mother feces in the nest (FM, control group), whose fecal ingestion in the nest was impaired (NF), or that had only access to feces from foreign does receiving either no antibiotics (FF) or medicated with tiamulin and tetracyclin (FFab).
2Number of live rabbits at the beginning of the period is given in parentheses.
3Mortality on whole period took account of the sacrificed animal.
4Mortality differences among groups were test using Pearson’s Chi-squared test.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Influence of age on the bacterial core phylum relative abundance (%) in the cecum of rabbits1

 
Age, d
P-value
Item 14 35 49 80 SEM Age Group2 Age × group Litter3
Actinobacteria 0.69bc 0.45c 1.52a 0.75b 0.07 0.006 0.13 0.35 0.99
Bacteroidetes 63.35a 32.93b 9.09c 6.68c 2.45 < 0.001 0.16 0.87 0.29
Firmicutes 29.04c 65.26b 87.69a 91.97a 2.59 < 0.001 0.34 0.44 0.24
Proteobacteria 6.91a 1.34b 1.70b 0.60c 0.37 < 0.001 0.08 0.81 0.99
a-cWithin a row, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1Based on 8 rabbits per group for each age with 2 rabbits per litter.
2Group: had free access to mother feces in the nest (FM, control group), whose fecal ingestion in the nest was impaired (NF), or that had only access to feces from foreign does receiving either no antibiotics (FF) or medicated with tiamulin and tetracyclin (FFab).
3Random effect.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Influence of age on the bacterial core family relative abundance (%) in the cecum of rabbits1

 
Age, d
P-value
Family 14 35 49 80 SEM Age Group2 Age × group Litter3
Lachnospiraceae 19.83b 37.00a 45.50a 43.97a 1.47 < 0.001 0.019 0.405 0.525
Ruminococcaceae 6.86b 23.04a 34.11a 37.95a 1.48 < 0.001 0.053 0.428 0.054
Bacteroidaceae 36.03a 23.22a 3.21b 2.38b 1.82 < 0.001 0.080 0.954 0.001
Rikenellaceae 6.77a 2.97b 2.57b 1.42b 0.41 < 0.001 0.864 0.804 0.240
Porphyromonadaceae 9.43a 2.37b 0.71b 0.76b 0.47 < 0.001 0.307 0.618 0.302
Enterobacteriaceae 3.63a 0.02b 0.03b 0.05b 0.28 < 0.001 0.952 0.887 0.050
Desulfovibrionaceae 1.75 0.96 1.18 0.27 0.14 0.013 0.118 0.720 1.000
Coriobacterineae 0.67bc 0.44c 1.46a 0.73b 0.07 0.007 0.059 0.331 1.000
Family XIII Incertae Sedis 1.02a 0.17b 0.21b 0.15b 0.05 < 0.001 0.118 0.843 1.000
S24–7 0.02b 0.30b 0.26b 0.44a 0.04 < 0.001 0.399 0.541 0.026
Campylobacteraceae 0.98a 0.01b 0.01b 0.01b 0.06 < 0.001 0.197 0.762 1.000
Prevotellaceae 0.00b 0.14ab 0.48a 0.20ab 0.05 0.009 0.956 0.555 < 0.001
Anaeroplasmataceae 0.03b 0.10ab 0.38ab 0.26a 0.06 0.001 0.424 0.130 0.426
Erysipelotrichaceae 0.01 0.01 0.11 0.51 0.03 < 0.001 0.879 0.210 0.223
BSV13 0.43a 0.15b 0.03c 0.02c 0.03 < 0.001 0.634 0.141 0.307
a-cWithin a row, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1Based on 8 rabbits per group for each age with 2 rabbits per litter.
2Group: had free access to mother feces in the nest (FM, control group), whose fecal ingestion in the nest was impaired (NF), or that had only access to feces from foreign does receiving either no antibiotics (FF) or medicated with tiamulin and tetracyclin (FFab).
3Random effect.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Influence of age on the bacterial core genus relative abundance (%) in the caecum of rabbits1

 
Age, d
P-value
Family genus 14 35 49 80 SEM Age Group2 Age × group Litter3
Bacteroidaceae Bacteroides 36.03a 23.23a 3.21b 2.38b 1.82 < 0.001 0.080 0.953 0.010
Porphyromonadaceae Barnesiella 6.40a 1.28b 0.38b 0.44b 0.40 < 0.001 0.892 0.187 1.000
P. Parabacteroides 1.98a 0.81b 0.28c 0.26bc 0.13 < 0.001 0.057 0.346 0.068
Rikenellaceae Alistipes 5.45a 2.67b 2.48b 1.17b 0.34 < 0.001 0.818 0.826 0.549
R. RC9 0.72 0.12 0.00 0.19 0.17 0.917 0.588 0.378 < 0.001
Lachnospiraceae Blautia 1.51 2.85 3.22 1.14 0.19 0.827 0.279 0.197 1.000
L. Coprococcus 0.13b 0.25ab 0.29a 0.52a 0.03 < 0.001 0.140 0.159 0.874
L. Incertae_Sedis 3.30 5.21 7.59 3.96 0.44 0.105 0.016 0.183 0.152
L. Moryella 0.45b 1.19ab 2.47ab 3.81a 0.31 < 0.001 0.448 0.171 < 0.001
L. uncultured 0.37b 6.68a 5.39a 7.46a 0.44 < 0.001 0.127 0.888 1.000
Ruminococcaceae Hydrogenoanaerobacterium 0.05c 0.66ab 1.27a 0.22b 0.10 < 0.001 0.398 0.220 0.038
R. Incertae_Sedis 0.73a 5.52b 8.25b 6.80b 0.40 < 0.001 0.218 0.940 1.000
R. Ruminococcus 0.01c 1.11b 2.06a 3.17a 0.16 < 0.001 0.168 0.333 1.000
R. Subdoligranulum 0.23b 1.90a 2.21a 4.23a 0.36 < 0.001 0.529 0.084 0.035
R. uncultured 0.25c 2.40b 6.49a 8.16a 0.39 < 0.001 0.426 0.814 0.021
Erysipelotrichaceae Allobaculum 0.00c 0.00c 0.10b 0.51a 0.03 < 0.001 0.505 0.278 1.000
Desulfovibrionaceae Desulfovibrio 0.83 0.49 0.61 0.10 0.08 0.285 0.227 0.318 1.000
Campylobacteraceae Campylobacter 0.98a 0.01b 0.01b 0.01b 0.07 < 0.001 0.197 0.762 1.000
Enterobacteriaceae Escherichia 0.81a 0.00b 0.01b 0.01b 0.10 < 0.001 0.874 0.141 0.755
E. Klebsiella 0.78 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.07 < 0.001 0.838 0.959 0.753
a-cWithin a row, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1Based on 8 rabbits per group for each age with 2 rabbits per litter.
2Group: had free access to mother feces in the nest (FM, control group), whose fecal ingestion in the nest was impaired (NF), or that had only access to feces from foreign does receiving either no antibiotics (FF) or medicated with tiamulin and tetracyclin (FFab).
3Random effect.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Influence of age on bacterial richness and diversity estimators in the cecum of rabbits1

 
Age, d
P-value
Item 14 35 49 80 SEM Age Group2 Age × group Litter3
No. of sequences 7,162 7,720 6,997 8,480 330 0.348 0.362 0.12 0.471
No. OTU4 1,334c 2,197b 2,437b 3,329a 114 < 0.001 0.505 0.044 0.999
Chao15 2,324c 4,536b 5,290b 7,625a 273 < 0.001 0.320 0.062 0.996
ACE5 3,090c 6,808b 8,252b 12,279a 452 < 0.001 0.167 0.067 0.993
Shannon indice6 5.68c 6.48b 6.73b 7.11a 0.06 < 0.001 0.378 0.300 0.320
a-cWithin a row, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1Based on 8 rabbits per group for each age with 2 rabbits per litter.
2Group: had free access to mother feces in the nest (FM, control group), whose fecal ingestion in the nest was impaired (NF), or that had only access to feces from foreign does receiving either no antibiotics (FF) or medicated with tiamulin and tetracyclin (FFab).
3Random effect.
4Operational taxonomic unit.
5Chao1 and ACE (abundance coverage-based estimator) are richness estimators of ecosystems.
6Shannon indice is a diversity indice of ecosystem.