View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Ingredients and chemical composition of control (CON), Bio-Chlor (BC), SoyChlor (SC), and lactation diets

 
Item CON BC SC Lactating
Ingredient, % DM
    Corn silage 22.7 22.7 22.7 23.7
    Wheat straw 37.8 37.8 37.8
    Wet corn gluten feed1 11.2 11.2 11.2 32.2
    Alfalfa hay 12.0
    Rolled corn 10.2 10.0 10.1 19.3
    Soybean hulls 4.5 4.2 1.6 1.8
    Solvent soybean meal (48% CP) 9.5 4.8 8.0
    Mechanically extracted soybean meal2 6.1
    Blood meal 0.8 0.8 0.8
    Bio-Chlor3 5.3
    SoyChlor4 5.8
    Limestone 1.0 1.0 1.6
    Magnesium oxide 0.3 0.3 0.8
    Molasses 1.5 1.5 1.5
    Micronutrient premix5 0.5 0.5 0.5 2.5
Chemical composition, % DM
    DM, % as fed 49.7 49.6 49.5 57.4
    CP 15.0 14.9 15.2 18.3
    ADF 30.8 31.0 31.1 14.0
    NDF 49.4 49.7 49.1 30.1
    Non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) 30.2 29.5 29.8 44.5
    EE 2.1 2.1 2.3 3.2
    Ca 0.84 0.80 0.62 0.76
    P 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.50
    Mg 0.36 0.37 0.34 0.31
    K 1.26 1.21 1.21 1.43
    Na 0.09 0.14 0.10 0.32
    Cl 0.19 0.64 0.80 0.26
    S 0.20 0.26 0.21 0.28
    NEL,7 Mcal/kg DM 1.21 1.21 1.23 1.72
    DCAD,8 mEq/100 g DM +17.7 ± 1.9 +2.5 ± 2.4 +0.4 ± 2.6 +25
1Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc., Blair, NE.
2SoyBest, Grain States Soya, West Point, NE.
3Bio-Chlor, Church and Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ. Contains (% DM) 48.6% CP, 4.9% ADF, 17.3% NDF, 17.4% NFC, 3.7% ether extract (EE), 0.09% Ca, 0.79% P, 2.1% Mg, 1.2% K, 1.5% Na, 9.1% Cl, and 3.6% S.
4SoyChlor, West Central Cooperative, Ralston, IA. Contains (% DM) 20.1% CP, 22.4% ADF, 26% NDF, 27.9% NFC, 5.1% EE, 4.5% Ca, 0.30% P, 2.8% Mg, 0.48% K, 0.04% Na, 10.3% Cl, and 0.35% S.
5CON, BC, and SC micronutrient premix consisted of 12.1% trace mineral salt, 3.7% 4-Plex (Zinpro Corp., Eden Prairie, MN), 7.3% selenium premix (0.06%), 5.0% vitamin A (30,000 IU/g), 5.0% vitamin D (30,000 IU/g), 64.3% vitamin E (44 IU/g), 0.7% ethylenediamine dihydroiodide (44.1 mg/g), and 3.6% Rumensin 80 (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN). Lactating micronutrient premix consisted of 5.2% trace mineral salt, 24.1% menhaden fish meal, 27.5% sodium bicarbonate, 3.1% MFP (Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO), 1.9% 4-Plex (Zinpro Corp.), 1.1% selenium premix (0.06%), 0.5% vitamin A (30,000 IU/g), 0.2% vitamin D (30,000 IU/g), 10.3% vitamin E (44 IU/g), 0.03% ethylenediamine dihydroiodide (44.1 mg/g), 0.22% Rumensin 80 (Elanco Animal Health), 17.2% XP Yeast (Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA), and 8.6% Reashure (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY).
6Calculated as DM – (ash + NDF + CP + EE).
7Estimated according to NRC (1989).
8Values for treatment diets are means ± SD, n = 6. The CON diet differed from both BC and SC (P < 0.001), but BC and SC did not differ (P = 0.16).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Effects of control (CON), Bio-Chlor (BC), and SoyChlor (SC) treatments on milk production and milk composition through 21 d in milk

 
Treatment1
P
Item CON BC SC SEM Day Parity Treatment
Milk yield, kg/d 31.9 33.9 34.6 2.4 <0.01 <0.01 0.70
ECM, kg/d 35.3 37.6 37.2 2.3 0.08 <0.01 0.74
Fat yield, kg/d 1.32 1.46 1.34 0.08 0.13 <0.01 0.41
Fat, % 4.33 4.46 4.01 0.2 <0.01 0.03 0.27
Protein yield, kg/d 1.01 1.01 1.13 0.09 <0.01 <0.01 0.46
Protein, % 3.18a,b 2.99b 3.29a 0.1 <0.01 0.55 0.03
Lactose yield, kg/d 1.52 1.59 1.68 0.13 <0.01 <0.01 0.62
Lactose, % 4.70a,b 4.66b 4.87a 0. 1 <0.01 0.08 0.02
SCC, 1,000 cells/mL 162 131 107 68 0.98 0.40 0.86
MUN, mg/dL 8.82a,b 8.57b 9.11a 0.12 <0.01 0.19 <0.01
a,bMeans within a row that do not share a superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1BioChlor is manufactured by Church and Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ. SoyChlor is manufactured by West Central Cooperative, Ralston, IA.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Postpartum health disorders for control (CON), Bio-Chlor (BC), and SoyChlor (SC) treatments1

 
Item Treatment
CON BC SC
Cows on treatment 13 14 15
Ketosis 7 6 4
Displaced abomasum 3 1 1
Retained placenta 2 0 1
Metritis 1 0 0
Mastitis 1 1 0
Milk fever 1 1 0
Subclinical hypocalcemia2 10 8 9
Clinical hypocalcemia3 2 2 1
1No significant treatment effects detected using Fisher’s exact test. BioChlor is manufactured by Church and Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ. SoyChlor is manufactured by West Central Cooperative, Ralston, IA.
2Serum calcium 5.6 to 8.0 mg/dL (Goff, 2008) at least once in the first 72 h postpartum.
3Serum calcium <5.6 mg/dL (Goff, 2008) at least once in the first 72 h postpartum.