View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Composition of the control (CON) and trace mineral deficient (DEF) diets during depletion period and diet composition during the repletion period

 
Depletion
Repletion1
CON DEF
Ingredient % of diet DM
Corn silage 50 50 15
Corn dried distillers grains with solubles 20.64 20.57 23.02
Dry rolled corn 18 18 50
Soyhull pellets 10 10 10
Limestone 0.9 0.9 1.51
Salt 0.31 0.31 0.31
Vitamin A premix2 0.11 0.11 0.11
Rumensin903 0.01 0.01 0.01
Trace mineral premix4 0.001 0.001 0.001
CON premix5 0.035 0.035
DEF premix6 0.101
Analyzed7 mg/kg of diet DM
Cu 13.8 4.1 12.7
Mn 43.9 25.7 32.1
Zn 56.1 33.9 62.3
1All cattle received the same diet during the repletion phase.
2Vitamin A premix contained 4,400,000 IU vitamin A/kg.
3Provided 200 300 mg∙steer–1∙d–1 of the ionophore monensin; donated by Elanco (Greenfield, IN).
4Provided per kilogram of diet DM: 0.5 mg I (calcium iodate) and 0.1 mg Co (cobalt carbonate).
5Provided per kilogram of diet DM: 10 mg Cu (copper sulfate), 20 mg Mn (manganese sulfate), 0.1 mg Se (sodium selenite), and 30 mg Zn (zinc sulfate).
6Provided per kilogram of diet: 300 mg Fe (iron sulfate) and 5 mg Mo (sodium molybdate).
7Analyzed mineral values reflect diet total, which includes supplemental mineral.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Effect of trace mineral supplementation (control [CON]) or deprivation (deficient [DEF]) during the depletion period and shipping on neutrophil function1

 
Variable Preshipping2
Postshipping3
SEM P-value4
CON n = 20 DEF n = 20 CON n = 20 DEF n = 20 D S D × S
Cytochrome C reduction, U5 1.95 3.28 3.55 3.65 0.092 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
MPO degranulation, % 51.57 52.55 42.00 46.42 1.49 0.10 <0.001 0.22
Total MPO, OD 1.81 1.62 1.96 1.92 0.045 0.02 <0.001 0.04
Pasteurella multocida killing, % 53.20 51.00 41.29 42.66 1.877 0.86 <0.001 0.16
1Data are means and pooled SEM; MPO = myeloperoxidase; OD = optical density.
2Preshipping data are from samples taken on d 69 and 70 of the experiment (19 and 18 d before shipping, respectively).
3Postshipping data are from samples taken on d 90 and 91 of the experiment (1 and 2 d postshipping, respectively).
4Main effects in statistical analysis were diet (D), shipping (S), and their interaction (D × S).
5One unit of cytochrome C reduction is defined as nM of extracellular superoxide anion released per 106 cells.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Repletion period plasma trace mineral concentrations, red blood cell lysate enzyme activities, and neutrophil function as affected by previous trace mineral supplementation (control [CON]) or deficiency (DEF) during the depletion period and saline (SAL) or trace mineral injection (Multimin90 [MM])1

 
Variable CON
DEF
SEM P-values2
SAL n = 10 MM n = 10 SAL n = 10 MM n = 10 D I D × I
Plasma3,4
    Cu,5,6 mg/L 1.10 1.07 1.10 1.13 0.020 0.12 0.99 0.21
    Mn,7 μg/L 2.30 3.07 2.17 3.17 0.243 0.94 <0.001 0.64
    Se,7 μg/L 129.9 137.4 131.5 138.4 1.74 0.47 <0.001 0.88
    Zn,8 mg/L 0.96 0.93 0.97 0.97 0.026 0.36 0.54 0.59
Red blood cell lysate3,4
    GPx,6,9 U × 103/g Hb 103.5 105.6 104.1 102.9 1.29 0.42 0.71 0.20
Neutrophil function10
    Cytochrome C reduction, U11 3.44 3.49 3.27 3.16 0.064 <0.001 0.69 0.21
    MPO degranulation, % 42.03 43.57 47.24 45.30 1.574 0.03 0.90 0.27
    Total MPO, OD 2.04 2.16 2.16 2.09 0.034 0.45 0.36 0.007
    Pasteurella multocida killing, % 52.09 54.68 48.35 47.84 2.152 0.04 0.68 0.53
1Data are means and pooled SEM based on repeated measures; GPx = glutathione peroxidase; Hb = hemoglobin; MPO = myeloperoxidase; OD = optical density.
2Main effects for statistical analysis included diet (D) and injection (I) and their interaction (D × I).
3Day 0 values were used as covariates in statistical analyses.
4Diet × injection × day: P > 0.10.
5Data were natural log transformed for analysis and least-square means and SEM were back-transformed for presentation in this table.
6Diet × day: P > 0.10; injection × day: P > 0.10.
7Diet × day: P > 0.10; injection × day: P < 0.01.
8Diet × day: P < 0.05; injection × day: P < 0.05.
9One unit of GPx activity is defined as the amount of enzyme that will cause the oxidation of 1.0 nmol reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to oxidized nicotinaminde adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) per minute at 25°C. Units are reported as U × 103 (for example 100 U × 103/g Hb = 100,000 U/g Hb.)
10All interactions involving day: P > 0.10.
11One unit of cytochrome C reduction is defined as nM of extracellular superoxide anion released per 106 cells.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Repletion period liver trace mineral concentrations as affected by trace mineral supplementation (control [CON]) or deficiency (DEF) during the depletion period and saline (SAL) or trace mineral injection (Multimin90 [MM]) on liver trace mineral concentrations1

 
Variable CON
DEF
SEM P-value2
SAL n = 10 MM n = 10 SAL n = 10 MM n = 10 D I D × I
Liver, mg/kg DM
    Cu3 124.6 151.3 139.3 161.6 8.96 0.33 0.001 0.76
    Mn4, 5 7.64 7.59 7.98 7.57 0.207 0.45 0.26 0.39
    Se4, 6 1.70 2.13 1.77 2.05 0.060 0.99 <0.001 0.16
    Zn3 66.9 70.7 79.5 78.7 2.01 <0.001 0.46 0.26
1Data are means and pooled SEM based on repeated measures.
2Main effects for statistical analysis included diet (D) and injection (I) and their interaction (D × I).
3Diet × day: P < 0.01; injection × day: P < 0.01.
4Diet × day: P > 0.10; injection × day: P > 0.10.
5Diet × injection × day: P > 0.10.
6Diet × injection × day: P = 0.02.