View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Ingredients and analyzed chemical composition of CONTROL, LOW dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and HIGH DDGS diets

 
Diet1, % of DM
Ingredient CONTROL LOW DDGS HIGH DDGS
DDGS2 9.75 19.5
Corn bran 19.5 9.75
Sorghum silage 20.0 20.0 20.0
Brome hay 60.0 60.0 60.0
Trace minerals 0.50 0.50 0.50
Urea 0.25 0.125
Chemical composition
    DM, % as is 78.9 79.0 79.2
    CP 10.6 11.8 13.0
    NDF 66.2 62.9 59.6
    Starch 5.7 4.6 3.5
    Ether extract 1.7 2.6 3.6
    Ash 7.2 7.6 7.9
Fatty acids
    C12:0 0.01 0.01 0.01
    C14:0 0.01 0.01 0.01
    C16:0 0.21 0.27 0.35
    C18:0 0.04 0.05 0.06
    C18:1 0.15 0.29 0.43
    C18:2 0.36 0.66 0.96
    C18:3 0.13 0.14 0.15
    C20:0 0.02 0.02 0.02
    C22:0 0.02 0.02 0.02
    Other 0.68 0.70 0.71
    Total 1.63 2.17 2.70
1CONTROL contained (DM basis) no DDGS, 19.5% corn bran, 20% sorghum silage, 60% brome hay, 0.5% trace minerals, and 0.25% urea. LOW DDGS contained (DM basis) 9.75% DDGS replacing an equal percentage of corn bran. HIGH DDGS contained (DM basis) 19.5% DDGS completely replacing corn bran.
2DDGS obtained from Green Plains Renewable Energy (Central City, NE).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Analyzed chemical composition (mean and SD) of feed ingredients used in the formulation of CONTROL, LOW dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and HIGH DDGS diets1

 
Feedstuff, % of DM
Component DDGS2 Corn bran Sorghum Silage Brome hay
DM, % as is 90.7 ± 1.93 89.0 ± 0.70 35.9 ± 0.52 90.5 ± 1.22
CP 27.8 ± 0.76 11.8 ± 0.30 7.2 ± 0.30 10.2 ± 0.73
NDF 31.5 ± 0.70 65.4 ± 0.99 54.9 ± 0.47 70.8 ± 1.74
Starch 5.2 ± 0.22 16.5 ± 0.91 4.2 ± 0.24 2.7 ± 0.57
Ether extract 11.7 ± 0.51 2.0 ± 0.15 1.5 ± 0.27 1.7 ± 0.18
Ash 4.3 ± 0.12 1.0 ± 0.09 8.2 ± 0.25 8.2 ± 0.50
Fatty acids
    C12:0 0.006 ± 0.006 0.001 ± 0.005 0.017 ± 0.002 0.012 ± 0.001
    C14:0 0.012 ± 0.000 0.001 ± 0.001 0.012 ± 0.001 0.012 ± 0.001
    C16:0 1.09 ± 0.032 0.11 ± 0.013 0.17 ± 0.017 0.17 ± 0.011
    C18:0 0.17 ± 0.006 0.02 ± 0.004 0.04 ± 0.006 0.04 ± 0.003
    C18:1 1.95 ± 0.055 0.19 ± 0.023 0.05 ± 0.018 0.05 ± 0.002
    C18:2 4.42 ± 0.115 0.44 ± 0.051 0.13 ± 0.024 0.11 ± 0.004
    C18:3 0.13 ± 0.005 0.01 ± 0.004 0.14 ± 0.030 0.14 ± 0.012
    C20:0 0.036 ± 0.002 0.004 ± 0.002 0.029 ± 0.033 0.015 ± 0.002
    C22:0 0.022 ± 0.002 0.002 ± 0.002 0.016 ± 0.002 0.020 ± 0.002
    Other 0.31 ± 0.027 0.032 ± 0.020 0.396 ± 0.095 0.941 ± 0.080
    Total 8.17 ± 0.203 0.82 ± 0.080 1.0 ± 0.174 1.51 ± 0.074
1CONTROL contained (DM basis) no DDGS, 19.5% corn bran, 20% sorghum silage, 60% brome hay, 0.5% trace minerals, and 0.25% urea. LOW DDGS contained (DM basis) 9.75% DDGS replacing an equal percentage of corn bran. HIGH DDGS contained (DM basis) 19.5% DDGS completely replacing corn bran.
2DDGS obtained from Green Plains Renewable Energy (Central City, NE).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Intake, duodenal flow, ruminal nutrient digestibilities and ruminal fluid pH of steers fed increasing amounts of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)

 
Diet1
Item CONTROL LOW DDGS HIGH DDGS SEM P-value,Linear
Intake, g/d
    DM 10,500 10,500 10,500
    CP 1,107 1,249 1,368 10.3 < 0.01
    NDF 6,955 6,607 6,259 7.6 < 0.01
    Starch 602 487 370 4.8 < 0.01
Duodenal flow, g/d
    DM 5,406 5,305 5,541 1,025 0.87
    CP 953 1,030 1,168 201 0.12
    NDF 3,012 2,863 2,862 560 0.74
    Starch 36 44 46 7.1 0.26
Ruminal digestibility, %
    DM 50.8 54.9 53.0 4.7 0.73
    CP 53.3 50.3 40.6 6.1 0.12
    NDF 56.8 59.3 54.3 4.7 0.41
    Starch 93.9 90.6 87.4 1.6 0.01
Ruminal fluid pH
    Minimum 6.13 6.18 6.16 0.12 0.86
    Maximum 6.62 6.61 6.66 0.07 0.65
    Mean 6.41 6.37 6.42 0.09 0.88
Time
    pH < 6.4, min/d 493 520 688 362 0.68
Area
    pH < 6.4, pH × min/d 76 86 77 61 0.98
1CONTROL contained (DM basis) no DDGS, 19.5% corn bran, 20% sorghum silage, 60% brome hay, 0.5% trace minerals, and 0.25% urea. LOW DDGS contained (DM basis) 9.75% DDGS replacing an equal percentage of corn bran. HIGH DDGS contained (DM basis) 19.5% DDGS completely replacing corn bran.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Intake and duodenal flow of total and C18 fatty acids, and biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids for steers fed increasing amounts of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)

 
Diet1
Item CONTROL LOW DDGS HIGH DDGS SEM2 P-value, Linear
Intake, g/d
    Total fatty acids 171.2 228.0 283.5 57.7 < 0.01
    C18:0 4.2 5.1 6.3 1.2 < 0.01
    C18:1n9 17.0 29.2 43.0 7.6 < 0.01
    C18:2n6 37.8 69.6 100.8 17.5 < 0.01
    C18:3n3 13.6 14.6 15.7 3.4 0.01
    Total C183 72.4 118.7 165.9 29.7 < 0.01
Duodenal flow, g/d
    Total FA 133.8 167.8 223.1 32.9 < 0.01
    C18:0 50.5 86.4 121.2 17.9 < 0.01
    Trans C18:1 6.5 10.8 19.2 2.6 < 0.01
    C18:1n9 5.6 7.1 9.2 1.2 0.01
    C18:2n6 6.0 5.9 6.7 1.1 0.62
    C18:3n3 2.2 2.0 2.1 0.3 0.35
    Total C184 70.8 112.7 158.6 22.3 < 0.01
Biohydrogenation, %
    C18:1n95 68.3 75.6 79.3 4.3 < 0.01
    C18:1n96 67.2 75.4 78.1 3.3 < 0.01
    C18:2n65 84.1 91.5 93.3 3.4 0.02
    C18:2n66 83.5 90.8 93.0 1.6 < 0.01
    C18:3n35 82.8 86.3 84.7 1.6 0.34
    C18:3n36 84.5 85.1 84.8 1.0 0.76
1CONTROL contained (DM basis) no DDGS, 19.5% corn bran, 20% sorghum silage, 60% brome hay, 0.5% trace minerals, and 0.25% urea. LOW DDGS contained (DM basis) 9.75% DDGS replacing an equal percentage of corn bran. HIGH DDGS contained (DM basis) 19.5% DDGS completely replacing corn bran.
2The largest SEM among diets is shown.
3Consisting of C18:0, C18:1n9, C18:2n6, and C18:3n3.
4Consisting of C18:0, trans C18:1, C18:1n9, C18:2n6, and C18:3n3.
5Percentage biohydrogenation based on total grams of fatty acid disappearing between the mouth and duodenum divided by the fatty acid intake (Lundy et al., 2004; Loor et al., 2004).
6Percentage biohydrogenation as calculated by Wu et al. (1991). Bio-hydrogenation (%) = 100– 100 × (individual unsaturated C18/total C18 in duodenal digesta)/(individual unsaturated C18/total C18 in feed).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Percentage of dominant Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) and phyla in the core measurable microbiome (CMM) of mixed ruminal bacteria collected from whole ruminal contents and duodenal digesta of steers increasing amounts of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)

 
Diet1 and location2
OTU Classification CONTROL LOW DDGS HIGH DDGS P-value
Identification Phylum Genus/species Rum Duo Rum Duo Rum Duo SEM3 Linear Interaction4
Most abundant
    19 Fibrobacteres Fibrobacter succinogenes 0.02 2.08 0.03 1.31 0.01 1.53 0.40 0.41 0.52
    102,674 Bacteroidetes Prevotella sp. 0.73 0.16 0.51 0.25 1.30 0.23 0.48 0.47 0.68
    21 Firmicutes Succiniclasticum sp. 0.46 0.48 0.26 0.31 0.30 0.33 0.17 0.18 0.90
    22 Fusobacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum 0.00 0.73 0.00 0.49 0.01 1.26 0.46 0.50 0.67
    24 Firmicutes Ruminococcus flavefaciens 0.14 0.60 0.11 0.05 0.18 0.14 0.28 0.38 0.50
    123 Bacteroidetes Paludibacter sp. 0.02 2.08 0.03 1.31 0.01 1.53 0.40 0.41 0.52
    79 Firmicutes Anaerostipes sp. 0.06 0.07 0.11 0.19 0.22 0.70 0.18 0.02 0.32
Biohydrogenating
    67 Firmicutes Butyrivibrio sp. 0.22 0.03 0.11 0.05 0.20 0.04 0.03 0.76 0.12
    820 Firmicutes Clostridium sp. 0.12 0.07 0.19 0.01 0.10 0.03 0.04 0.52 0.28
Total number of OTU 920 868 1,120 911 938 792 86 0.67 0.54
Total Bacteroidetes 44.10 40.77 43.75 41.01 44.79 44.26 4.58 0.62 0.94
Total Firmicutes 44.83 31.42 47.78 29.92 45.77 33.13 3.57 0.71 0.76
Total Fibrobacteres 0.06 10.93 0.13 11.95 0.16 7.28 0.56 < 0.01 < 0.01
Other phyla5 10.99 16.86 8.31 17.10 9.27 15.31 1.69 0.29 0.61
Ratio of Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes 1.12 0.82 1.27 0.73 1.26 0.76 0.25 0.87 0.86
1CONTROL contained (DM basis) no DDGS, 19.5% corn bran, 20% sorghum silage, 60% brome hay, 0.5% trace minerals and 0.25% urea. LOW DDGS contained (DM basis) 9.75% DDGS replacing an equal percentage of corn bran. HIGH DDGS contained (DM basis) 19.5% DDGS completely replacing corn bran.
2Rum: rumen, Duo: duodenum.
3The largest SEM among diets is shown.
4Interaction of diet by location.
5Other phyla include unclassified phyla, Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Chlorolexi, Cyanobacteria, Elusimicrobia, Fusobacteria, Lentisphaerae, Planctomycetes, Protoebacteria, SR1, Spirochaetes, Synergistetes, TM7, Tenericutes, Verrucomicrobia and WPS-2.