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Sprecher lameness scoring system

 
Lameness score Clinical description
0 Normal: stands and walks normally, with all feet placed with purpose
1 Mildly lame: stands with flat back but arches when walks and gait is slightly abnormal
2 Moderately lame: stands and walks with an arched back and short strides with 1 or more legs
3 Lame: arched back standing and walking, with 1 or more limbs favored but at least partially weight bearing
4 Severely lame: arched back, refuses to bear weight on 1 limb, or may refuse or have great difficulty moving from lying position



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Mean (± SD) meloxicam and gabapentin plasma pharmacokinetic parameters following lameness induction with amphoterecin B and treatment with oral meloxicam (MEL) at 0.5 mg/kg once daily alone or in combination with oral gabapentin (MEL-GABA) at 15 mg/kg once daily for 4 d. The maximum (Cmax), minimum (Cmin), and average (Cavg) plasma concentration and time to maximum serum concentration (Tmax) were determined directly from the data. The calculated variables included the area under the curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC INF) using the linear trapezoidal rule and the terminal drug elimination half-life (HL_Lambda_z). The accumulation index was calculated as the ratio between the Cmax at steady state and the Cmax after the first dose.

 
Treatment group Outcome HL_Lambda_z, h Tmax, h Cmax, μg/mL Cmin, μg/mL Cavg, μg/mL AUC INF, h × μg/mL Accumulation index
MEL MEL mean 22.49 89.60 4.70 3.21 4.08 276.78 1.95
MEL SD 8.81 6.57 1.47 1.31 1.17 93.84 0.51
MEL-GABA MEL mean 23.37 87.65 4.44 2.76 3.67 219.85 1.99
MEL SD 6.96 6.20 1.13 1.04 1.14 71.87 0.40
MEL-GABA GABA mean 9.45 84.00 3.97 1.81 2.94 94.70 1.21
GABA SD 0.63 0.00 1.49 1.08 1.22 42.85 0.03



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Mean (±SE) outcome measures after lameness induction with amphoterecin B and treatment with oral meloxicam (MEL) at 0.5 mg/kg once daily alone or in combination with oral gabapentin (MEL-GABA at 15 mg/kg PO) once daily for 4 d

 
LS1 means (±SE)
P-values
Parameter PLBO2 MEL MEL-GABA Treatment Time Treatment × time
Sprecher lameness score, 0–4 1.33 (0.29) 0.38 (0.29) 0.79 (0.29) 0.09 <0.0001 0.76
Cortisol, nmol/L 15.78 (1.19) 15.18 (1.18) 15.79 (1.18) 0.98 <0.0001 0.25
Step count 3,224.03a (163.70) 4,086.59b (176.98) 3,424.63a (161.36) 0.01 <0.0001 0.92
Total force, kg force 788.75 (36.48) 863.81 (36.25) 910.20 (36.87) 0.10 0.30 0.59
Force (lateral claw), kg force 495.93 (47.38) 621.29 (47.86) 637.64 (48.28) 0.10 0.45 0.31
Force (medial claw), kg force 394.94 (23.04) 336.94 (23.09) 313.61 (24.25) 0.07 0.21 0.89
Total contact area, cm2 50.81 (1.59) 49.30 (1.57) 51.08 (1.60) 0.70 0.38 0.37
Contact area (lateral claw), cm2 28.96 (1.34) 30.25 (1.35) 31.67 (1.36) 0.38 0.20 0.13
Contact area (medial claw), cm2 24.29 (1.10) 21.39 (1.07) 21.18 (1.12) 0.12 0.52 0.98
Total contact pressure, kg/cm2 15.88 (0.90) 17.40 (0.90) 17.90 (0.91) 0.28 0.30 0.93
Total impulse, kg × s 384.33a (24.98) 409.77ab (27.11) 488.43b (26.81) 0.03 0.12 0.80
Impulse (lateral claw), kg × s 235.06 (25.41) 282.97 (26.27) 320.73 (26.30) 0.09 0.33 0.68
Impulse (medial claw), kg × s 152.02 (17.76) 145.86 (19.00) 152.53 (19.16) 0.97 0.38 0.37
Stance phase duration, s 0.75 (0.03) 0.78 (0.04) 0.82 (0.03) 0.36 0.59 0.48
Stride length, cm 62.47 (1.46) 66.64 (1.42) 65.68 (1.43) 0.15 0.55 0.41
a,bDifferent superscripts indicate significant differences between treatments.
1LS = least square.
2PLBO = placebo.



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Intercept, slope, and SEM for the correlation between plasma drug concentrations and the outcome measures after lameness induction with amphoterecin B and treatment with oral meloxicam (MEL) at 0.5 mg/kg once daily alone or in combination with oral gabapentin (GABA; 15 mg/kg PO) once daily for 4 d

 
Regression slope estimate (±SEM)
P-values
Parameter Intercept (±SEM) MEL GABA MEL GABA
Sprecher lameness score, 0–4 7.37 (2.30) –0.13 (0.06) 0.19 (0.12) 0.03 0.12
Log cortisol, nmol/L 1.75 (0.79) –0.07 (0.04) 0.06 (0.09) 0.13 0.54
Step count 1,669.36 (599.44) 189.73 (46.70) –160.61 (88.88) 0.0002 0.08
Total force, kg force 1,066.53 (188.46) 23.20 (12.43) 24.30 (21.85) 0.07 0.27
Force (lateral claw), kg force 468.08 (180.47) 27.09 (11.98) 19.88 (21.90) 0.03 0.37
Force (medial claw), kg force 289.34 (65.96) –11.62 (7.11) –10.62 (13.61) 0.11 0.44
Total contact area, cm2 37.61 (9.74) –0.61 (0.51) 0.42 (0.87) 0.24 0.63
Contact area (lateral claw), cm2 28.02 (7.89) 0.35 (0.44) 0.41 (0.81) 0.43 0.62
Contact area (medial claw), cm2 15.27 (3.48) –0.45 (0.33) –0.43 (0.62) 0.18 0.49
Total contact pressure, kg/cm2 3.90 (5.31) 0.55 (0.25) 0.67 (0.48) 0.03 0.17
Total impulse, kg × s 404.55 (79.50) 9.49 (9.43) 31.38 (17.70) 0.32 0.08
Impulse (lateral claw), kg × s 214.71 (48.95) 15.27 (6.42) 21.45 (11.60) 0.02 0.07
Impulse (medial claw), kg × s 110.23 (33.57) –1.43 (5.56) –4.14 (11.08) 0.80 0.71
Stance phase duration, s 0.49 (0.11) 0.01 (0.01) 0.02 (0.02) 0.41 0.41
Stride length, cm 46.49 (16.18) 0.57 0.44 0.55 0.87 0.20 0.53



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Intercept, slope, and SE for the correlation between Sprecher lameness score and the outcome measures after lameness induction with amphoterecin B and treatment with oral meloxicam at 0.5 mg/kg once daily alone or in combination with oral gabapentin (15 mg/kg PO) once daily for 4 d

 
Parameter Intercept (±SE) Regression slope estimate (±SE) P-value
Log cortisol, nmol/L 1.26 (0.66) 0.20 (0.08) 0.02
Step count 2,468.92 (501.20) 487.77 (84.81) <0.0001
Total force, kg force 1,146.92 (157.34) –84.92 (24.65) 0.001
Force (lateral claw), kg force 562.47 (170.17) –65.81 (26.37) 0.02
Force (medial claw), kg force 240.77 (68.90) 23.16 (16.55) 0.17
Total contact area, cm2 38.75 (9.24) –0.40 (1.13) 0.72
Contact area (lateral claw), cm2 28.14 (7.01) –1.46 (0.90) 0.11
Contact area (medial claw), cm2 13.76 (3.51) 1.13 (0.71) 0.12
Total contact pressure, kg/cm2 8.90 (4.42) –1.56 (0.53) 0.005
Total impulse, kg × s 381.27 (77.09) –37.08 (25.74) 0.16
Impulse (lateral claw), kg × s 219.71 (48.86) –51.21 (18.69) 0.01
Impulse (medial claw), kg × s 105.09 (26.56) 6.41 (11.60) 0.58
Stance phase duration, s 0.53 (0.10) –0.0007 (0.03) 0.98
Stride length, cm 44.23 (16.92) –0.43 (0.95) 0.65