View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Student enrollment data obtained from the Registrar’s Office regarding the demographics of students enrolled in Animal Science/Dairy Science 101. Data comprises all enrolled students from both survey years (2010 and 2011) and is divided by sex, major, and year in school. Number in each group equals number of students. Data from both years were used in the analysis to determine the effects of instruction on student opinions on issues involving animal use

 
Major Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Total
Animal Scientist male1 14 6 1 1 22
Animal Scientist female1 70 21 17 2 110
Agriculture Scientist male2 3 2 4 0 9
Agriculture Scientist female2 6 2 2 0 10
General Scientist male3 1 3 1 1 6
General Scientist female3 8 9 11 8 36
Other male4 4 3 5 2 14
Other female4 9 2 4 2 17
Total 115 48 45 16 224
1Animal Scientist category includes Animal and Dairy Science majors.
2Agriculture Scientist includes Agriculture Business Management, Agronomy, Applied Agriculture Economics, Horticulture, and Life Science Communications majors.
3General Scientist includes Biology, Biological Systems Engineering, Zoology, Genetics, Biochemistry, Immunology, Molecular Biology, Nutritional Science, and Wildlife Ecology majors.
4Other includes Economics, History, Mathematics, Philosophy, Spanish, Afro-American Studies, Consumer Affairs, Art, English, Journalism, Religious Studies, Social Welfare, and Undeclared majors (defined as students who have yet to officially declare a major with their respective school).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Demographics of the analyzed subset of students from Table 1 who attended class and took the surveys at the beginning and end of the semester. The analyzed subset contained only students who answered that they had a strictly farm background (survey 1, n = 47; survey 2, n = 42) or strictly urban background with no livestock animal contact (survey 1, n = 70; survey 2, n = 52). Students were excluded (45%) if they indicated urban with farm animal/horse/veterinary contact due to highly varied experiences. Compiled data was from year 2010 and 2011 and consisted of 117 surveys before instruction (survey 1) and 94 surveys after instruction (survey 2)

 
Survey 1 Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Total
Farm male1 6 3 2 2 13
Farm female1 21 4 8 1 34
Urban male2 8 2 4 4 18
Urban female2 28 9 9 6 52
Career Yes male3 11 1 3 2 17
Career Yes female3 47 10 15 4 76
Career No male3 3 4 3 4 14
Career No female3 2 3 2 3 10
Survey 2 Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Total
Farm male1 7 4 1 1 13
Farm female1 21 4 4 0 29
Urban male2 7 2 1 1 11
Urban female2 23 6 6 6 41
Career Yes male3 12 1 0 1 14
Career Yes female3 42 8 8 5 63
Career No male3 2 5 2 1 10
Career No female3 2 2 2 1 7
1Farm male and female refer to students who indicated they grew up on a farm.
2Urban male and female refer to students who indicated they grew up in a city with no farm animal contact.
3Career Yes and Career No refer to the students’ future careers, where “yes” denotes an anticipated future career in or related to Agriculture and “no” denotes anticipated future career not in or related to agriculture.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Responses to survey statements analyzed by 3 demographics categories: grew up in farm or urban setting, sex, and intended future career. Before and after refers to instruction, where “before” results correspond to surveys given at the beginning of the semester and “after” results correspond to identical but new surveys administered at the completion of the semester. “Career Yes” indicates future career involving animal science whereas “Career No” indicates career will not involve animal science. Numbers shown are mean agreeability for each statement from 0% to 100% agreeability (0% = disagree and 100% = agree) with pooled SEM and main effects/interaction P-values shown for each question

 
Agreeability (0–100%)
Statement Category Before1 After1 Pooled SEM P-value
1. It is morally acceptable to farm animals. Farm 92.9 94.0 1.80 Instruction Background Interaction
Urban 79.8 82.8 0.42 <0.05 0.70
Female 83.4 87.2 2.00 Instruction Sex Interaction
Male 89.5 88.8 0.60 0.19 0.43
Career Yes 83.6 87.9 2.20 Instruction Career Interaction
Career No 90.5 85.9 0.97 0.45 0.17
2. Modern animal producers are concerned about animal welfare. Farm 75.2 89.5 2.15 Instruction Background Interaction
Urban 57.7 78.9 <0.05 <0.05 0.16
Female 63.1 82.2 2.85 Instruction Sex Interaction
Male 68.5 89.0 <0.05 0.09 0.85
Career Yes 64.7 82.8 2.77 Instruction Career Interaction
Career No 63.5 88.6 <0.05 0.57 0.39
3. Modern animal agriculture practices are humane. Farm 76.8 87.1 1.92 Instruction Background Interaction
Urban 57.4 74.8 <0.05 <0.05 0.12
Female 62.5 79.0 2.31 Instruction Sex Interaction
Male 71.8 84.9 <0.05 <0.05 0.61
Career Yes 63.8 81.0 2.62 Instruction Career Interaction
Career No 69.2 78.0 <0.05 0.76 0.27
4. Breeding animals for valuable traits is acceptable. Farm 90.6 92.9 2.23 Instruction Background Interaction
Urban 69.2 82.4 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05
Female 74.4 85.8 2.15 Instruction Sex Interaction
Male 87.3 90.4 <0.05 <0.05 0.19
Career Yes 76.9 86.8 2.46 Instruction Career Interaction
Career No 81.0 87.1 <0.05 0.54 0.59
5. When possible, I purchase organic animal products. Farm 25.2 19.3 2.92 Instruction Background Interaction
Urban 54.6 46.5 0.12 <0.05 0.79
Female 44.4 36.1 3.62 Instruction Sex Interaction
Male 38.4 31.6 0.15 0.32 0.89
Career Yes 43.6 34.8 4.00 Instruction Career Interaction
Career No 39.6 35.6 0.27 0.78 0.68
6. I purchase animal food products based on price. Farm 60.2 72.1 2.69 Instruction Background Interaction
Urban 57.8 67.4 <0.05 0.37 0.66
Female 57.8 68.0 3.00 Instruction Sex Interaction
Male 62.5 73.0 <0.05 0.27 0.98
Career Yes 58.4 68.7 3.31 Instruction Career Interaction
Career No 61.8 71.6 <0.05 0.51 0.96
7. I purchase animal food products based on environmental and welfare standards (organic, cage-free, etc.). Farm 30.8 22.7 2.85 Instruction Background Interaction
Urban 51.7 45.4 0.09 <0.05 0.76
Female 46.9 36.2 3.31 Instruction Sex Interaction
Male 33.0 34.6 0.34 0.11 0.20
Career Yes 47.2 35.2 3.62 Instruction Career Interaction
Career No 28.2 38.5 0.87 0.14 <0.05
8. Animal farm size has grown too large. Farm 49.3 37.5 2.85 Instruction Background Interaction
Urban 55.2 41.5 <0.05 0.2 0.86
Female 52.8 40.2 3.23 Instruction Sex Interaction
Male 51.9 39.5 <0.05 0.86 0.99
Career Yes 54.5 40.4 3.46 Instruction Career Interaction
Career No 45.2 38.3 <0.05 0.26 0.48
9. Farm animals are valuable to society. Farm 95.2 96.3 1.31 Instruction Background Interaction
Urban 85.8 89.4 <0.05 <0.05 0.15
Female 89.4 93.2 1.46 Instruction Sex Interaction
Male 87.4 93.5 <0.05 0.71 0.58
Career Yes 89.1 93.2 1.69 Instruction Career Interaction
Career No 87.9 93.4 <0.05 0.84 0.78
1Indicates survey responses before and after instruction.