View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Statistical models used to estimate the breed effect for boar taint compounds, sex hormones, immune response traits, and aggressive behavior

 
Fixed effect
Covariate
Date of
Live weight at
Trait1 Breed Batch Blood sampling Slaughter Blood sampling Slaughter
TES × × ×
E2 × × × ×
AND × × × ×
SKA × × × ×
IND × × ×
cCRP × × × ×
PM × × ×
LYM × × × ×
GRA × × × ×
NSL × × × ×
1TES = concentration of testosterone in plasma (ng/mL); E2 = concentration of 17β-estradiol in plasma (pg/mL); AND = concentration of androstenone in fat (μg/g); SKA = concentration of skatole in fat (μg/g); IND = concentration of indole in fat (μg/g); cCRP = concentration of C-reactive protein (μg/mL) in plasma; PM = concentration of pig major acute-phase protein in plasma (μg/mL); LYM = number of lymphocytes in blood (1,000 cells/mm3); GRA = number of granulocytes in blood (1,000 cells/mm3); NSL = number of skin lesions on the carcass.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Numbers, means, SE, minimum (Min.), and maximum (Max.) of untransformed and transformed variables in purebred and crossbred boars

 
Purebred
Crossbred
Breed effect
Family of traits Trait1 No. Mean SD Min. Max. No. Mean SD Min. Max. P-value
Weight and age WaS2 671 109.30 7.16 57.78 127.33 760 112.76 5.59 79.48 137.13 <0.0001
AaS 671 164.83 8.30 144 188 760 155.87 8.27 138 179 <0.0001
Sex hormones TES 672 1.48 1.22 0.25 10.15 757 1.63 1.24 0.23 11.13
lTES 672 0.15 0.66 –1.39 2.32 757 0.27 0.64 –1.47 2.41 0.030
E2 672 3.02 2.58 2.50 51.54 755 3.41 2.70 2.50 35.35
lE2 672 1.01 0.33 0.92 3.94 755 1.09 0.43 0.916 3.57 0.12
Boar taint compounds AND 654 0.45 0.51 0.24 4.67 757 0.50 0.59 0.24 11.25
lAND 654 –1.06 0.60 –1.43 1.54 757 –0.94 0.62 –1.43 2.42 0.0030
SKA 654 0.042 0.038 0.030 0.53 757 0.055 0.072 0.030 1.43
lSKA 654 –3.31 0.43 –3.51 –0.64 757 –3.15 0.57 –3.51 0.36 <0.0001
IND 654 0.038 0.035 0.030 0.68 757 0.039 0.077 0.030 1.70
lIND 654 –3.38 0.37 –3.51 –0.39 757 –3.42 0.36 –3.51 0.53 <0.0001
Immune response cCRP 672 88.47 56.31 4.00 401.01 757 72.27 50.62 4.00 461.92
sCRP 672 9.01 2.70 2.00 20.03 757 8.08 2.64 2.00 21.49 <0.0001
PM 672 1,071.30 1,062.12 4.00 9,364.76 757 994.14 988.35 4.00 10,023.17
sPM 672 30.50 11.90 2.00 96.77 757 29.4 11.30 2.00 100.12 0.18
LYM 617 12.60 2.76 3.40 23.80 706 14.47 3.66 5.10 38.40
lLYM 617 2.51 0.23 1.22 3.17 706 2.64 0.25 1.63 3.65 <0.0001
GRA 617 9.56 2.75 2.00 24.50 706 9.41 2.90 2.40 25.40
lGRA 617 2.21 0.30 0.69 3.20 706 2.20 0.31 0.88 3.23 0.41
Aggressive behavior NSL 654 44.67 40.34 1 247 754 72.64 58.70 0 280
lNSL 654 3.45 0.90 0.69 5.51 754 3.91 0.99 0 5.64 <0.0001
1WaS = weight at slaughter; AaS = age at slaughter; TES = concentration of testosterone in plasma (ng/mL); lTES = log(TES); E2 = concentration of 17β-estradiol in plasma (pg/mL); lE2 = log(E2); AND = concentration of androstenone in fat (μg/g); lAND = log(AND); SKA = concentration of skatole in fat (μg/g); lSKA = log(SKA); IND = concentration of indole in fat (μg/g); lIND = log(IND); cCRP = concentration of C-reactive protein (μg/mL) in plasma; sCRP = sqrt(cCRP); PM = concentration of pig major acute-phase protein in plasma (μg/mL); sPM = sqrt(PM); LYM = number of lymphocytes in blood (1,000 cells/mm3); lLYM = log(LYM); GRA = number of granulocytes in blood (1,000 cells/mm3); lGRA = log(GRA); NSL = number of skin lesions on the carcass; lNSL = log(NSL + 1).
2The 3 lightest animals had a live weight of 57.78, 64.05, and 73.65 kg at slaughter. They had no measure of boar taint compounds and skin lesions. Blood and plasma measures being in the normal range were kept in the data set.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Pearson’s coefficients of correlation on residual of transformed variables in purebred (above diagonal) and crossbred (below diagonal) boars1

 
Trait2 lTES lE2 lAND lSKA lIND sCRP sPM lLYM lGRA lNSL
lTES 0.26 0.24 0.10 0.07 –0.11 –0.002 –0.06 –0.06 0.07
lE2 0.38 0.53 0.14 0.08 0.008 0.03 0.02 –0.01 0.09
lAND 0.23 0.59 0.13 0.11 –0.12 –0.03 0.03 –0.03 0.08
lSKA 0.12 0.17 0.16 0.35 –0.05 –0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03
lIND 0.01 0.08 0.08 0.26 –0.02 0.008 –0.05 0.14 –0.07
sCRP –0.05 –0.06 –0.07 –0.12 –0.06 –0.15 –0.08 0.13 –0.14
sPM –0.06 –0.01 –0.01 –0.07 –0.05 0.22 –0.10 0.008 –0.02
lLYM 0.03 –0.03 0.002 0.05 –0.008 –0.05 –0.03 0.44 0.05
lGRA 0.03 –0.02 0.05 0.02 –0.03 0.19 0.10 0.45 –0.08
lNSL 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.03 0.04 –0.06 –0.02 –0.04 –0.06
1Within the table values, in bold have a P-value < 0.05.
2 lTES = log(testosterone); lE2 = log(17β-estradiol); lAND = log(androstenone); lSKA = log(skatole); lIND = log(indole); sCRP = sqrt(C-reactive protein); sPM = sqrt(pig major acute-phase protein); lLYM = log(lymphocytes); lGRA = log(granulocytes); lNSL = log(number of skin lesions on the carcass + 1).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Estimates of heritabilities (diagonal), genetic correlations (above diagonal), and SE estimated (below diagonal) in purebred and crossbred boars1

 
A. Purebred
Trait2 lTES lE2 lAND lSKA lIND sCRP sPM lLYM lGRA lNSL
B. Crossbred
Trait lTES lE2 lAND lSKA lIND sCRP sPM lLYM lGRA lNSL
lTES 0.20 0.86 0.75 0.71 0.17 –0.13 0.08 –0.25 0.09 0.43
lE2 0.33 0.21 0.83 0.52 0.13 –0.05 –0.38 0.10 –0.10 0.46
lAND 0.24 0.12 0.63 0.61 0.22 –0.11 –0.49 0.05 0.15 –0.06
lSKA 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.37 0.40 –0.02 –0.12 0.19 0.28 0.05
lIND 0.18 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.87 0.08 0.11 –0.10 0.44 –0.30
sCRP 0.14 0.23 0.17 0.14 0.16 0.24 0.13 –0.01 –0.08 –0.31
sPM 0.40 0.40 0.33 0.36 0.24 0.42 0.06 –0.36 –0.99 –0.04
lLYM 0.17 0.12 0.07 0.16 0.12 0.16 0.33 0.39 0.44 0.22
lGRAN 0.27 0.14 015 0.20 0.15 0.22 0.06 0.19 0.21 0.08
lNSL 0.21 0.27 0.10 0.20 0.16 0.21 0.15 0.12 0.19 0.31
lTES 0.29 0.70 0.32 0.31 0.04 –0.20 –0.70 –0.25 –0.41 0.53
lE2 0.20 0.17 0.95 0.41 –0.41 –0.12 –0.14 –0.46 –0.03 0.04
lAND 0.15 0.08 0.70 0.36 0.04 –0.21 0.22 –0.11 0.07 –0.17
lSKA 0.14 0.20 0.16 0.24 0.27 –0.19 –0.01 –0.09 0.05 0.03
lIND 0.33 0.38 0.19 0.31 0.09 –0.02 –0.82 0.09 0.23 0.007
sCRP 0.11 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.27 0.46 –0.15 0.14 –0.10 0.006
sPM 0.62 0.50 0.39 0.42 0.27 0.42 0.05 0.44 0.12 –0.22
lLYM 0.17 0.22 0.12 0.13 0.19 0.09 0.53 0.52 0.45 –0.31
lGRA 0.17 0.26 0.14 0.15 0.32 0.14 0.30 0.13 0.29 –0.08
lNSL 0.19 0.19 0.11 0.27 0.15 0.07 0.38 0.17 0.18 0.31
1Standard errors for heritabilities were between 0.05 and 0.10 both for purebred and crossbred boars.
2lTES = log(testosterone); lE2 = log(17β-estradiol); lAND = log(androstenone); lSKA = log(skatole); lIND = log(indole); sCRP = sqrt(C-reactive protein); sPM = sqrt(pig major acute-phase protein); lLYM = log(lymphocytes); lGRA = log(granulocytes); lNSL = log(number of skin lesions on the carcass + 1).