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Summary of populations and genetic diversity indices, including sample abbreviation; country of origin; type; number of animals in each sample; mean number of alleles (MNA); effective number of alleles (ENA); information index (I); observed (HO), expected (HE), and unbiased expected (uHE) heterozygosity; and inbreeding coefficient (FIS) with SE1

 
Population Sample Country2 Type No. of animals MNA ENA I HO HE uHE FIS
1 Drawa PL (west) Feral 19 1.81 (0.03) 1.47 (0.03) 0.41 (0.02) 0.27 (0.02) 0.27 (0.01) 0.28 (0.01) 0.003 (0.02)
2 Warta3 PL4 (West) Feral 51 1.90 (0.02) 1.51 (0.03) 0.45 (0.02) 0.30 (0.01) 0.30 (0.01) 0.30 (0.01) 0.005 (0.01)
3 Biebrza PL4,5 (east) Feral 16 1.87 (0.02) 1.50 (0.03) 0.44 (0.12) 0.30 (0.02) 0.30 (0.01) 0.30 (0.01) −0.01 (0.02)
4 Narew PL (east) Feral 12 1.83 (0.03) 1.48 (0.03) 0.42 (0.02) 0.29 (0.02) 0.28 (0.01) 0.30 (0.01) −0.02 (0.02)
5 KA (Brown) PL Farm 36 1.96 (0.01) 1.54 (0.02) 0.48 (0.01) 0.33 (0.01) 0.32 (0.01) 0.32 (0.01) −0.04 (0.01)*
6 SVS (Brown) DK6 Farm 11 1.90 (0.02) 1.52 (0.02) 0.46 (0.02) 0.32 (0.02) 0.31 (0.01) 0.32 (0.01) −0.05 (0.03)
7 ST (Brown) DK6 Farm 12 1.86 (0.03) 1.50 (0.02) 0.45 (0.02) 0.34 (0.02) 0.30 (0.01) 0.31 (0.01) −0.12 (0.02)*
8 TP (Mahogany) DK6 Farm 10 1.89 (0.02) 1.53 (0.02) 0.47 (0.02) 0.34 (0.02) 0.31 (0.01) 0.33 (0.01) −0.08 (0.02)*
9 FF (Black) DK6 Farm 5 1.68 (0.03) 1.44 (0.03) 0.38 (0.02) 0.29 (0.02) 0.26 (0.01) 0.29 (0.02) −0.13 (0.03)*
10 JR (Black) DK6 Farm 8 1.80 (0.03) 1.49 (0.03) 0.43 (0.02) 0.33 (0.02) 0.29 (0.01) 0.31 (0.01) −0.13 (0.03)*
11 SVS (White) DK6 Farm 8 1.77 (0.03) 1.45 (0.03) 0.40 (0.02) 0.28 (0.02) 0.27 (0.01) 0.29 (0.01) −0.05 (0.03)
12 TP (Pearl) DK6 Farm 7 1.60 (0.04) 1.38 (0.03) 0.33 (0.02) 0.25 (0.02) 0.22 (0.02) 0.24 (0.02) −0.11 (0.03)*
13 FA (Silver) DK6 Farm 8 1.77 (0.03) 1.47 (0.03) 0.41 (0.02) 0.32 (0.02) 0.27 (0.01) 0.29 (0.02) −0.15 (0.02)*
14 JC (Sapphire) DK6 Farm 8 1.66 (0.03) 1.40 (0.03) 0.35 (0.02) 0.27 (0.02) 0.24 (0.01) 0.25 (0.02) −0.14 (0.02)*
1Standard deviation is given in parentheses. Significance of FIS is inferred using the Wald (1943) test and is indicated by asterisk (*).
2DK: Denmark, PL: Poland.
3Warta individuals were collected in 2 different locations: site 1: n = 19; site 2 = 32.
4Previously described in Zalewski et al. (2010, 2011), but analyzed samples were collected in different years.
5Previously described in Michalska-Parda et al. (2009), but analyzed samples were collected in different years.
6Previously described in Demontis et al. (2011).



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Hierarchical molecular variance analysis using ARLEQUIN considering the following comparisons: 1) country of origin (Poland vs. Denmark), 2) type (feral vs. farm), and 3) color types

 
Comparison FST (overall differentiation) FSC (within groups) FCT (among groups)
Poland vs. Denmark 0.087* 0.076* 0.011*
Feral vs. farm 0.084* 0.080* 0.004*
Color types 0.076* 0.025* 0.052*
*P < 0.05.



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Proportion of membership to the 11 clusters inferred by STRUCTURE1

 
Clusters
Population Sample I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI
1 Drawa 0.018 0.040 0.015 0.027 0.016 0.745 0.014 0.017 0.026 0.013 0.069
2 Warty 0.009 0.026 0.026 0.019 0.017 0.223 0.620 0.014 0.012 0.012 0.022
3 Biebrza 0.013 0.009 0.888 0.007 0.015 0.006 0.008 0.016 0.018 0.008 0.012
4 Narew 0.013 0.018 0.865 0.018 0.019 0.009 0.015 0.013 0.006 0.008 0.016
5 KA (Brown) 0.084 0.053 0.04 0.016 0.016 0.008 0.012 0.011 0.125 0.364 0.272
6 SVS (Brown) 0.018 0.025 0.02 0.007 0.018 0.009 0.009 0.013 0.065 0.556 0.259
7 ST (Brown) 0.011 0.012 0.007 0.008 0.015 0.006 0.006 0.011 0.012 0.870 0.042
8 TP (Mahogany) 0.019 0.122 0.008 0.012 0.009 0.012 0.016 0.02 0.404 0.116 0.261
9 FF (Black) 0.006 0.132 0.01 0.006 0.014 0.014 0.022 0.072 0.028 0.204 0.490
10 JR (Black) 0.006 0.009 0.007 0.009 0.007 0.008 0.027 0.009 0.899 0.007 0.013
11 SVS (White) 0.008 0.047 0.01 0.079 0.790 0.005 0.008 0.007 0.011 0.018 0.018
12 TP (Pearl) 0.006 0.009 0.006 0.943 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.011 0.006 0.005 0.005
13 FA (Silver) 0.007 0.798 0.009 0.017 0.013 0.007 0.007 0.094 0.009 0.011 0.026
14 JC (Sapphire) 0.005 0.028 0.005 0.01 0.004 0.007 0.004 0.914 0.009 0.006 0.009
1The most likely clusters are in bold.