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Description of data for weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (W12), weight at 18 mo (W18), weight at 2 yr (W24), age at first calving (AFC), and milk yield at 270 d of first lactation (MY270)1

 
Trait SX No. Observations Mean No. Observations Total Mean CV Min Max NCG
WW (kg) M 12429 208.70 23937 207.35 0.23 80 384 216
H 11508 205.89
W12 (kg) M 3040 213.00 7194 210.75 0.21 100 490 192
H 4154 209.88
W18 (kg) M 1305 263.48 3929 256.09 0.20 130 500 155
H 2624 253.25
W24 (kg) M 451 385.34 2733 358.48 0.15 250 759 143
H 2282 353.65
AFC (days) H 4138 1110.35 0.11 761 1499 162
MY270 (kg) H 2229 993.69 0.23 401 2192 149
1SX = sex, CV = coefficient of variation, Min = minimum value, Max = maximum value, NCG = number of contemporary groups.



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Fixed, random, and covariate effects for weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (W12), weight at 18 mo (W18), weight at 2 yr (W24), age at first calving (AFC), and milk yield at 270 d of first lactation (MY270) included in the models1

 
Random effects
Fixed effects
Covariable (age)
Trait a m pe ε SX NC CG
WW X X X X X X X X
W12 X X X X X X X
W18 X X X X X X
W24 X X X X X X
AFC X X X
MY270 X X X
1a = additive genetic effect, m = maternal genetic effect, pe = maternal permanent environmental effect,ε = residual effect, SX = sex (male, female), CN = number of calving (1 to 14), and CG = contemporary group.



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Number of estimated parameters (NP), Akaike information criterion (AIC), and percentage of direct additive genetic variance explained by each of the eigenvalues in each model

 
Model1 NP AIC λ1 λ2 λ3 λ4 λ5 λ6
PC1 30 354077,96 100.00
PC1:2 36 354036,87 79.82 20.18
PC1:3 40 354033,18 74.77 22.31 2.92
PC1:4 43 354142,18 76.66 19.63 3.19 0.52
PC1:5 45 354045,87 77.60 18.30 3.33 0.16 0.16
MC 46 354143,17 77.56 17.59 3.82 0.65 0.37 0.01
1PCn = reduced-analysis model for n principal components, MC = multi-trait model.



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Heritabilities (on the diagonal bold), genetic correlations (below the diagonal) and phenotypic correlations (above the diagonal) estimated for dual-purpose buffaloes in Colombia using a reduced model with three principal components (PC1:3) and a complete multi-trait model (MC; standard errors are in parentheses)

 
Trait1 WW W12 W18 W24 AFC MY270
PC1:3 model
    WW 0.24 (0.02) 0.78 (0.02) 0.72 (0.03) 0.39 (0.04) -0.19 (0.03) 0.09 (0.93)
    W12 0.99 (0.02) 0.26 (0.02) 0.81 (0.01) 0.49 (0.01) -0.23 (0.10) 0.05 (0.04)
    W18 0.94 (0.01) 0.95 (0.01) 0.44 (0.03) 0.66 (0.03) -0.33 (0.02) 0.15 (0.10)
    W24 0.80 (0.04) 0.79 (0.04) 0.89 (0.03) 0.30 (0.04) -0.32 (0.08) 0.29 (0.04)
    AFC -0.51 (0.09) -0.52 (0.10) -0.51 (0.09) -0.76 (0.08) 0.14 (0.03) 0.11 (0.03)
    MY270 0.86 (0.10) 0.88 (0.11) 0.76 (0.09) 0.41(0.12) -0.13 (0.08) 0.24 (0.05)
MC model
    WW 0.24 (0.01) 0.75 (0.00) 0.72 (0.00) 0.40 (0.01) -0.19 (0.01) 0.08 (0.03)
    W12 0.91 (0.02) 0.27 (0.02) 0.79 (0.00) 0.49 (0.02) -0.22 (0.02) 0.56 (0.04)
    W18 0.95 (0.02) 0.86 (0.03) 0.45 (0.03) 0.66 (0.01) -0.33 (0.02) 0.12 (0.04)
    W24 0.78 (0.06) 0.75 (0.07) 0.85 (0.05) 0.30 (0.04) -0.33 (0.02) 0.17 (0.05)
    AFC -0.57 (0.09) -0.44 (0.11) -0.53 (0.09) -0.76 (0.11) 0.14 (0.03) 0.12 (0.03)
    MY270 0.43 (0.22) 0.60 (0.12) 0.53 (0.10) 0.51 (0.12) -0.14 (0.9) 0.26 (0.06)
1WW = weaning weight, W12 = yearling weigh, W18 = weight at 18 mo of age, W24 = weight at 24 mo, AFC = age at first calving, MY270 = milk yield at 270 d of first lactation.
Bold values indicate heritabilities.