Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Effect of resveratrol (RSV) and lipoic acid (LA) treatments on mRNA expression of the genes analyzed in bovine liver slices. Relative expression levels (y-axis) of the mRNA for the genes studied were determined by quantitative real-time PCR in bovine liver slices under restricted (Krebs-Ringer buffer [KRB]; bars 1–7) or under fed conditions (propionate and glucagon in KRB; bars 8–14). All gene expression levels were normalized to the geometric mean of the housekeeping genes eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1α1 (EEF1A1) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein zeta (YWHAZ) by the 2–ΔΔCt method. Data from 6 animals are presented as the least squares means ± SEM. a–fDifferent lowercase letters indicate a significant difference between treatments under the same experimental condition (restricted or fed; P < 0.05). Treatments are ordered as follows: Control (bars 1 and 8), 40 μM RSV (bars 2 and 9), 80 μM RSV (bars 3 and 10), 30 μM LA (bars 4 and 11), 100 μM LA (bars 5 and 12), 300 μM LA (bars 6 and 13), and 1,000 μM LA (bars 7 and 14).

 


Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Effects of resveratrol (RSV) and lipoic acid (LA) treatments on mRNA expression of the genes analyzed in bovine muscle slices. Relative expression levels (y-axis) of the mRNA for the genes studied were determined by quantitative real-time PCR in bovine muscle slices under restriction (Krebs-Ringer buffer [KRB]; bars 1–7) or with epinephrine (Epi) in KRB (bars 8–14). All gene expression levels were normalized to the geometric mean of the housekeeping genes ACTB and ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A) by the 2–ΔΔCt method. Data from 6 animals are presented as the least squares means ± SEM. a–eDifferent lowercase letters indicate a significant difference between treatments under the same condition (restriction or Epi; P < 0.05). Treatments are as follows: Control (bars 1 and 8), 40 μM RSV (bars 2 and 9), 80 μM RSV (bars 3 and 10), 30 μM LA (bars 4 and 11), 100 μM LA (bars 5 and 12), 300 μM LA (bars 6 and 13), and 1,000 μM LA (bars 7 and 14).

 


Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Expression of the bovine Sirt1 protein by resveratrol (RSV) and lipoic acid (LA) treatments. Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of the Sirt1 protein in liver (A) and muscle (B). Rat liver (+) was used as the positive control for both tissues (upper panel). Quantification of the Sirt1 protein expression was made relative to ACTB using the ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; lower panel). Data from 6 animals are presented as the least squares means ± SEM. Different lowercase letters indicate a significant difference between treatments under the same condition (P < 0.05). Treatments are as follows: Control (bars 1 and 8), 40 μM RSV (bars 2 and 9), 80 μM RSV (bars 3 and 10), 30 μM LA (bars 4 and 11), 100 μM LA (bars 5 and 12), 300 μM LA (bars 6 and 13), and 1,000 μM LA (bars 7 and 14).