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Chemical composition and biological analysis of recycled poultry bedding (RPB; g/kg of DM unless otherwise noted)

 
Item RPB
DM, g/kg of fresh weight 926
Chemical composition1
    CP 251
    aNDFom 376
    ADFom 179
    ADL 64.6
    Ether extract 22.3
    Ash 156
    Cu, mg/kg of DM 51.7
    Zn, mg/kg of DM 383
    RDP,2 g/kg of CP 209
    RUP,2 g/kg of CP 41.6
    MP 143
    ME,3 MJ/kg of DM 9.21
Biological analysis,1 log10 cfu/g
    Total count 1.89
    Escherichia coli 0.0
    Salmonella 0.0
1Mean values were calculated from the analysis of 4 samples in triplicate.
2Estimated from CP content of RPB and N degradation parameters (measured in a digestion trial) according to the Agricultural and Food Research Council (1993).
3Estimated as 0.80 × digestible OM (DOM; g/g of DM) × 18.5 (MJ/kg of DOM; Deshck et al., 1998).



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Ingredient and chemical composition of the diets fed in the trial

 
Diet1
Item RPB0 RPB200
Total mixed ration ingredient, g/kg of DM
    Alfalfa hay 250 250
    Wheat straw 50 50
    Recycled poultry bedding 0 200
    Barley grain 187 163
    Wheat grain 113 140
    Wheat bran 220 80
    Molasses 120 80
    Meat meal 30 10
    Urea 5 2
    Sodium bicarbonate 5 5
    Salt white 5 5
    Minerals and vitamins premix2 5 5
    Bentonite 10 10
DM, g/kg, as-fed basis 876 889
Chemical composition
    OM 910 896
    CP 151 155
    aNDFom3 391 369
    ADFom4 202 192
    ADL 51.7 51.4
    Ether extract 39.8 39.5
    Ca 9.47 10.5
    P 4.89 5.33
    Mg 3.28 3.69
    K 19.1 18.8
    Na 5.71 6.01
    Zn, mg/kg DM 53.8 88.2
    Cu, mg/kg DM 8.24 11.1
    Mn, mg/kg DM 77.3 92.5
    RDP,5 g/kg of CP 98.1 109
    RUP,5 g/kg of CP 52.9 45.7
    MP5 92.4 93.5
    ME,6 MJ/kg of DM 11.5 11.8
1RPB0 = diet containing 0 g/kg DM recycled poultry bedding (RPB); RPB200 = diet containing 200 g/kg DM RPB.
2Provided per kilogram of DM: 171 g Ca, 73.4 g P, 38.8 g Mg, 14.1 g K, 5.33 g S, 2.93 g Fe, 3.44 g Zn, 22.6 mg Se, 826 mg Cu, 21.7 mg/kg Se, 44.1 mg Co, 422,000 IU vitamin A, 37,000 IU vitamin D, and 2,424 IU vitamin E.
3aNDFom.
4ADFom.
5Calculated from coefficient of degradability for individual feed ingredients according to the Agricultural and Food Research Council (1993) guidelines.
6Calculated by the following equation (AFRC, 1993); ME = 0.0157 × DOMD.



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Effect of recycled poultry bedding (RPB) level and physical form (PF; mash vs. block) on rumen fermentation and plasma metabolites in growing lambs

 
Level of RPB in diet, g/kg DM
0.0
200
P-value
Item Mash Block Mash Block SEM RPB1 PF
Ruminal parameters
    Ammonia, mg/dL 12.1 9.92 18.5 16.6 1.56 <0.01 0.19
    VFA, mol/100 mol
        Acetate 63.3 64.7 63.8 64.3 1.28 0.95 0.46
        Propionate 22.2 20.1 20.1 19.8 1.02 0.25 0.25
        Butyrate 12.0 12.8 13.4 13.5 0.55 0.08 0.44
        Isovalerate 0.82 0.93 0.78 0.95 0.08 0.91 0.13
        Valerate 1.54 1.35 1.79 1.35 0.15 0.45 0.06
        Acetate: propionate 2.87 3.23 3.19 3.3 0.21 0.39 0.30
Plasma parameters
    Metabolites, mg/dL
        Glucose 53.5 53.6 50.1 51.2 1.66 0.10 0.71
        Plasma urea-N 15.9 15.0 19.2 17.4 1.02 0.01 0.21
        Triglycerides 34.9 26.8 33.4 24.6 4.05 0.65 0.04
        Creatinine 1.45 1.22 1.42 1.44 0.18 0.60 0.57
    Proteins, g/dL
        Total protein 6.61 6.32 6.81 5.89 0.98 0.84 0.45
        Albumin 4.06 3.91 4.24 3.88 0.71 0.91 0.73
    Minerals, µg/mL
        Zn 1.07 1.05 1.09 1.07 0.08 0.85 0.79
        Cu 0.67 0.63 0.59 0.66 0.04 0.60 0.74
1RPB = diets containing 0 vs. 200 g/kg DM RPB.



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Effect of recycled poultry bedding (RPB) level and physical form (PF; mash vs. block) on intake, total tract apparent digestibility, and performance in growing lambs

 
Level of RPB in diet, g/kg DM
0.0
200
P-value
Item Mash Block Mash Block SEM RPB1 PF
Apparent digestibility, g/kg
    DM 658 679 678 671 11.2 0.61 0.50
    OM 693 705 708 699 10.2 0.68 0.89
    CP 684 679 678 658 11.6 0.24 0.28
    aNDFom2 509 522 511 512 18.5 0.81 0.71
    ADFom3 516 547 531 504 15.5 0.37 0.90
   Ether extract 634 640 646 629 15.2 0.94 0.74
Intake
    DM, g/d 1,663 1,654 1,852 1,886 59.3 <0.01 0.84
    OM, g/d 1,524 1,509 1,648 1,673 53.7 0.01 0.93
    CP, g/d 253 248 294 305 9.01 <0.01 0.74
    aNDFom, g/d 693 794 695 693 24.0 0.05 0.06
    ADFom, g/d 327 332 324 308 11.5 0.25 0.61
    Ether extract, g/d 65.0 66.1 72.7 74.2 2.35 0.08 0.74
Growth performance
    Initial BW, kg 25.3 25.6 25.5 25.6 1.08 0.86 0.90
    ADG, g/d 288 252 291 279 8.70 0.10 0.01
    G:F, g/g DM 0.17 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.052 0.054 0.020
    Final BW, kg 55.4 52.2 55.9 54.3 1.28 0.30 0.07
1RPB = diets containing 0 vs. 200 g/kg DM RPB.
2aNDFom.
3ADFom.



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Effect of recycled poultry bedding (RPB) level and physical form (PF; mash vs. block) on microbial N supply and N balance in growing lambs

 
Level of RPB in diet, g/kg DM
0.0
200
P-value
Item Mash Block Mash Block SEM RPB1 PF
Intake,2 g/d
    DM 1,654 1,736 1,957 1,809 120 0.14 0.78
    DOMI3 1,077 1,116 1,205 1,166 65.4 0.19 0.97
Urinary purine derivatives, mmol/d
    Allantoin 13.4 11.5 13.7 13.1 0.55 0.10 0.03
    Uric acid 2.99 3.17 3.26 3.20 0.11 0.20 0.60
    Xanthine + hypoxanthine 1.84 1.64 1.88 1.81 0.07 0.19 0.10
Microbial N supply
    Microbial N, g/d 15.3 13.6 15.8 15.1 0.62 0.11 0.06
N balance, g/d
    N intake4 39.5 41.1 49.1 45.4 2.91 0.03 0.71
    Fecal N excretion 12.6 13.2 15.8 15.4 1.01 0.03 0.92
    Urinary N excretion 17.7 19.4 24.1 21.0 1.93 0.06 0.75
    Total N excretion 30.2 32.5 39.8 36.4 2.10 <0.01 0.73
    N retention 9.33 8.38 9.19 8.97 1.38 0.76 0.80
1RPB = diets containing 0 vs. 200 g/kg DM RPB.
2Intake during sampling days.
3DOMI = digestible OM intake.
4Crude protein intake during sampling days/6.25.



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Effect of recycled poultry bedding (RPB) level and physical form (PF; mash vs. block) of diets on feeding behavior of lambs

 
Level of RPB in diet, g/kg DM
0.0
200
P-value
Item Mash Block Mash Block SEM RPB1 PF
Intake,2 g/d
    DM 1,925 1,968 2,162 2,230 127 0.06 0.66
    aNDFom3 800 942 806 818 52.6 0.27 0.16
Rate of eating, g DM/min 9.00 6.66 8.83 8.40 0.41 0.07 <0.01
Chewing, min/d 559 705 604 628 35.4 0.65 0.02
Eating, min/d 217 303 253 273 20.4 0.87 0.01
Ruminating, min/d 342 402 350 355 17.6 0.28 0.08
Nonchewing, min/d 880 734 835 811 35.4 0.65 0.02
1RPB = diets containing 0 vs. 200 g/kg DM RPB.
2Average of intake recorded on 3 days of feeding behavior trial (d44, 64, and 83).
3aNDFom.



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Physical characteristics of experimental diets

 
Level of RPB1 in diet, g/kg DM
0.0
200
P-value2
Item Mash Block Mash Block SEM RPB PF RPB × PF
Bulk density, kg/m3 345 742 315 632 15.1 <0.01 <0.01 0.01
Hardness, N/cm2 72.1 59.1 3.17 <0.01
1RPB = recycled poultry bedding.
2RPB = diets containing 0 vs. 200 g/kg DM RPB; PF = physical form (of diets; mash vs. block).