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Experimental design of the gait test1

 
Tölt
Trot
Day Horse Rider Horse Rider
Day 1
Test 1 Horses 1 to 4 Rider 1 Horses 5 to 8 Rider 2
Test 2 Horses 1 to 4 Rider 2 Horses 5 to 8 Rider 1
Day 3
Test 1 Horses 5 to 8 Rider 2 Horses 1 to 4 Rider 1
Test 2 Horses 5 to 8 Rider 1 Horses 1 to 4 Rider 2
1Tests 1 and 2 were performed with at least 4.5 h in between



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Numbers of tests (out of 32) used for calculation of fitness parameters, where the calculated parameter was not reached, and with missing data1

 
V4 V2 V180 V140 HR2
Used for calculations 18 28 12 19 18
Calculated parameter not reached 11 1 7 0 1
Missing data2 3 3 13 13 13
1Fitness parameters calculated were speed at plasma lactate concentration of 4 mmol/L (V4) and 2 mmol/L (V2) and at a heart rate of 140 beats/min (V140) and 180 beats/min (V180) and heart rate at a plasma lactate concentration of 2 mmol/L (HR2).
2Heart rate, incorrect gait, and lack of data from 1 horse in 1 test.



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Speed, stride frequency, and stride length (least squares means ± SE) of Icelandic riding horses in three 642 m phases (Speed3, Speed4, and Speed5)2 of an incremental exercise test performed in tölt and trot

 
Item n1 Tölt n1 Trot P-value
Speed3
    Speed, m/s 15 3.19 ± 0.03 16 3.20 ± 0.03 0.81
    Strides per min 14 106.9 ± 1.2a 15 94.1 ± 1.2b <0.0001
    Stride length, m 14 1.79 ± 0.02a 15 2.04 ± 0.02b <0.0001
Speed4
    Speed, m/s 15 4.09 ± 0.05 16 4.08 ± 0.05 0.82
    Strides per min 14 115.9 ± 1.3a 15 105.7 ± 1.2b <0.0001
    Stride length, m 14 2.13 ± 0.02a 15 2.33 ± 0.02b <0.0001
Speed5
    Speed, m/s 15 5.54 ± 0.09 14 5.61 ± 0.09 0.58
    Strides per min 14 126.2 ± 1.5a 13 115.8 ± 1.6b <0.0001
    Stride length, m 14 2.64 ± 0.04a 13 2.93 ± 0.04b 0.0001
a,bWithin rows, least squares means with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05).
1Number of tests.
2 Speed3 ∼ 3.0 m/s, Speed4 ∼ 4.0 m/s, and Speed5 ∼ 5.0 m/s.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Calculated oxygen consumption and energy expenditure (least squares means ± SE) in Icelandic horses during an incremental exercise test (Speed3, Speed4, and Speed5)1 performed in tölt and trot2

 
Item Unit n3 Tölt n3 Trot P-value
Speed3
    Oxygen consumption
        Coenen et al. (2011) equation mL·kg−1·min−1 11 49.7 ± 2.2 10 50.0 ± 2.3 0.86
        Eaton et al. (1995) equation mL·kg−1·min−1 11 56.9 ± 2.5 10 57.2 ± 2.5 0.81
        Per meter based on Coenen et al. mL/m 11 125.9 ± 6.4 10 123.1 ± 6.7 0.50
        Per meter based on Eaton et al. mL/m 11 144.0 ± 7.1 10 141.0 ± 7.4 0.49
    Energy expenditure
        Coenen et al. (2011) equation kJ·kg−1·min−1 11 1.00 ± 0.04 10 1.00 ± 0.05 0.86
        Eaton et al. (1995) equation kJ·kg−1·min−1 11 1.14 ± 0.05 10 1.15 ± 0.05 0.81
        Per meter based on Coenen et al. kJ/m 11 2.53 ± 0.13 10 2.47 ± 0.13 0.50
        Per meter based on Eaton et al. kJ/m 11 2.89 ± 0.14 10 2.83 ± 0.15 0.49
Speed4
    Oxygen consumption
        Coenen et al. (2011) equation mL·kg−1·min−1 13 67.0 ± 2.5 11 68.2 ± 2.6 0.42
        Eaton et al. (1995) equation mL·kg−1·min−1 13 75.1 ± 2.5 11 76.2 ± 2.6 0.41
        Per meter based on Coenen et al. mL/m 13 131.2 ± 5.6 11 131.6 ± 5.7 0.87
        Per meter based on Eaton et al. mL/m 13 146.8 ± 5.8 11 147.0 ± 5.8 0.96
    Energy expenditure
        Coenen et al. (2011) equation kJ·kg−1·min−1 13 1.35 ± 0.05 11 1.37 ± 0.05 0.42
        Eaton et al. (1995) equation kJ·kg−1·min−1 13 1.51 ± 0.05 11 1.53 ± 0.05 0.41
        Per meter based on Coenen et al. kJ/m 13 2.64 ± 0.11 11 2.64 ± 0.12 0.87
        Per meter based on Eaton et al. kJ/m 13 2.95 ± 0.12 11 2.95 ± 0.12 0.97
Speed5
    Oxygen consumption
        Coenen et al. (2011) equation mL·kg−1·min−1 13 92.4 ± 3.9 9 96.4 ± 4.4 0.27
        Eaton et al. (1995) equation mL·kg−1·min−1 13 97.6 ± 3.3 9 101.1 ± 3.7 0.27
        Per meter based on Coenen et al. mL/m 13 133.3 ± 5.2 9 135.9 ± 5.3 0.24
        Per meter based on Eaton et al. mL/m 13 140.8 ± 4.4 9 142.6 ± 4.6 0.36
    Energy expenditure
        Coenen et al. (2011) equation kJ·kg−1·min−1 13 1.86 ± 0.08 9 1.94 ± 0.09 0.27
        Eaton et al. (1995) equation kJ·kg−1·min−1 13 1.96 ± 0.07 9 2.03 ± 0.07 0.27
        Per meter based on Coenen et al. kJ/m 13 2.68 ± 0.10 9 2.73 ± 0.11 0.23
        Per meter based on Eaton et al. kJ/m 13 2.83 ± 0.09 9 2.87 ± 0.09 0.36
1Speed3 ∼ 3.0 m/s, Speed4 ∼ 4.0 m/s and Speed5 ∼ 5.0 m/s
2Calculated oxygen consumption is based on heart rate recordings during the last minute of each phase (Speed3, Speed4, and Speed5) and the Coenen et al. (2011) and Eaton et al. (1995) equations. Energy expenditure is calculated from oxygen consumption (1 L O2 = 20.1 kJ; Coenen et al., 2011).
3Number of tests.